From the Preface
This book attempts to delineate some of the more recent efforts at utilizing biotechnology in industry. For convenience, this book is divided into the following five sections: (1) Industrial Applications, (2) Polysaccharides and Lignins, (3) Spider Silks, (4) Protein-Based Systems, and (5) Miscellaneous Biotechnological Polymers. The division is intended for the convenience of the reader and not to depict any basic demarcation in biotechnology, which already spans much of our modern technology and appears poised to embark on a course aimed at extending its boundaries even further. One of the newest trends in science is the mimicking of nature using solutions provided in nature (such as elasticity) to produce materials with distinctive properties.
The papers in this book are extensions of presentations given March 15-16, 1994, in San Diego, at the 207th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society during a symposium on "Industrial Biotechnological Polymers." This symposium was sponsored by the Biotechnology Secretariat and cosponsored by the A.C.S. Division of Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering. The editors believe this book will make a lasting contribution to the field of biotechnological polymers.
Table of Contents
Biotechnology and Industrial Polymers
Charles G. Gebelein, Lionfire, Inc., and Dept. of Chemistry, Florida Atlantic University
Starches and Starch Derivatives as Biotechnological Polymers
Robert B. Friedman, Research Dept. American Maize Products Co.
Industrial Utilization of Starch
J. Jane, J. Chen, R. L. Evangelista, S.-T. Lim, T. Kasemsuwan, and K. Spence, Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition and Center for Crops Utilization Research, Iowa State University
Overview of Polysaccharides as Raw Materials for theDetergent Industry
Y. H. Paik, E. S. Simon, and G. Swift, Rohm and Haas Co.
Application of endo-(1,4)-b-D-Xylanase in the Pulp andPaper Industry
D. Santiago and A. Rodriguez, Clark Atlanta University; J. Hamilton and D. J. Senior, ICI Canada Inc.; J. Szwec and A. J. Ragauskaus, Institute of Paper Science and Technology
Prospects for Modification of Fibers through Genetic Engineering of Cotton
Maliyakal E. John, Agracetus Inc.
Polysaccharides and Lignins
Versatile Low Density Materials from Natural Hydrogel Polymers
Peter D. Unger, Ronald P. Rohrbach, and Tammy L. Smith, Research and Technology, AlliedSignal Inc.
Factors Affecting the Bacterial Activity of Organotin-Containing Polysaccharides
Charles E. Carraher, Jr., and Cynthia W. Butler, Depts. of Chemistry and Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University; Yoshinobu Naoshima, Dept. of Biochemistry, Okayama University of Science, Japan; Dorothy Sterling and Vincent Saurino, Depts. of Chemistry and Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University
Synthesis of Hyaluronan Derivatives Containing Nucleic Acid Bases
Takehiko Wada, Suwabun Chirachanchai, N. Izawa, Y. Inaki, and K. Takemoto, Dept. of Applied Fine Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Japan
Hyaluronic Acid-Gel Spheres for Stabilizing Unstable Reagents and for Drug Delivery Systems
Fumiaki Matsuzaki, Toshio Yanaki, and Michihiro Yamaguchi, Shiseido Basic Research Center, Japan
Design of Macromolecular Prodrug of ADR Using CM-Chitin as a Carrier
Tatsuro Ouchi, Koji Nonomura, and Yuichi Ohya, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, Japan
Some Ecologically Friendly Applications of Chitin and Chitosan in Biotechnology
Shigehiro Hirano, Dept. of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Tottori University, Japan
Organostannane-Modified Kraft Lignin in the Selected Treatment of Yeast Causing Microorganisms
Charles E. Carraher, Jr., Dept. of Chemistry, Florida Atlantic University; Thomas H. Ridgway, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati; Dorothy C. Sterling and Cynthia Butler, Depts. of Chemistry and Medical Technology, Florida Atlantic University
Characterization of Nephila clavipes Dragline Protein
C. M. Mello, S. Arcidiacono, K. Senecal, and D. L. Kaplan, Biotechnology Division, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center
Hierarchical Molecular Order in Silk Secretions and Fibers
Brad L. Thiel, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington; Christopher Viney, Molecular Bioengineering Program, Center for Bioengineering, University of Washington
Bioresorption of Implanted Protein Polymer Films Controlled by Adjustment of Their Silk/Elastin Block Lengths
Joseph Cappello, Garret Textor, and Belinda Bauerle, Protein Polymer Technologies, Inc.
Elastic and Plastic Protein-Based Polymers: Potential for Industrial Uses
Dan W. Urry, Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham; David T. McPherson, Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and UAB AIDS Center, The University of Alabama at Birmingham; Jie Xu, Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and Bioelastics Research, Ltd.; D. Channe Gowda and Timothy M. Parker, Bioelastics Research, Ltd.
A Biochemo-Mechanical System Consisting of Polymer Gels with Immobilized Glucose Oxidase
Etsuo Kokufuta, Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Structural Approaches in Understanding Collagen Interactions: The Application of Structure-Function Analysis
James M. Chen, Dept. of Chemistry, OsteoArthritis Sciences, Inc.
Stabilized Proteases for Peptide Synthesis in AcetronitrileSolvent Systems
Charles A. Wartchow, Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of California at Berkeley; Matthew R. Callstrom, Dept. of Chemistry, The Ohio State University; Mark D. Bednarski, Center for Advanced Materials, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories
Miscellaneous Biotechnological Polymers
Melanins: Biopolymers for Survival
Sergio Nacht, Ago B. Ahene, and Subhash J. Saxena, Advanced Polymer Systems, Inc.
Special Functional Group Triglyceride Oils Originating Interpenetrating Polymer Networks
L. H. Sperling, Chemical Engineering Dept. and Materials Science and Engineering Dept., Lehigh University; L. W. Barrett, 3M Company
Clinical Studies with PolyICLC
Hilton B. Levy, Andres Salazar, and G. Dutta, NIH, Walter Reed Army Hospital, Uniformed Services; R. Meheshwari, University of Health Sciences, Central Drug Research Institute
Polymeric Calcium Phosphate Composites withRemineralization Potential
D. Skrtic and E. D. Eanes, National Institute of Dental Research's Research Associate Program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology; J. M. Antonucci, Dental and Medical Materials Group, Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology