Provides comprehensive coverage of both the image acquisition and image processing technologies for DSCsExplains both CCD and CMOS image sensors in detail, from operating principles to specific sensorsDetails evaluation methods for image sensors and image processingPresents the algorithms used by the software and hardware in a DSC and discusses quality-related standardsFeatures a look to the future, written by Eric Fossum, the pioneer of CMOS active pixel image sensor technology, that explores a linear extrapolation of current technologies, a new paradigm for image sensors, and future DSC conceptsIncludes a 20-page full-color insert
Shrinking pixel sizes along with improvements in image sensors, optics, and electronics have elevated DSCs to levels of performance that match, and have the potential to surpass, that of silver-halide film cameras. Image Sensors and Signal Processing for Digital Still Cameras captures the current state of DSC image acquisition and signal processing technology and takes an all-inclusive look at the field, from the history of DSCs to future possibilities.
The first chapter outlines the evolution of DSCs, their basic structure, and their major application classes. The next few chapters discuss high-quality optics that meet the requirements of better image sensors, the basic functions and performance parameters of image sensors, and detailed discussions of both CCD and CMOS image sensors. The book then discusses how color theory affects the uses of DSCs, presents basic image processing and camera control algorithms and examples of advanced image processing algorithms, explores the architecture and required performance of signal processing engines, and explains how to evaluate image quality for each component described. The book closes with a look at future technologies and the challenges that must be overcome to realize them.
With contributions from many active DSC experts, Image Sensors and Image Processing for Digital Still Cameras offers unparalleled real-world coverage and opens wide the door for future innovation.
Table of Contents
DIGITAL STILL CAMERAS AT A GLANCE; Kenji Toyoda
What Is a Digital Still Camera?
History of Digital Still Cameras
Variations of Digital Still Cameras
Basic Structure of Digital Still Cameras
Applications of Digital Still Cameras
OPTICS IN DIGITAL STILL CAMERAS; Takeshi Koyama
Optical System Fundamentals and Standards for Evaluating Optical Performance
Characteristics of DSC Imaging Optics
Important Aspects of Imaging Optics Design for DSCs
DSC Imaging Lens Zoom Types and Their Applications
BASICS OF IMAGE SENSORS; Junichi Nakamura
Functions of an Image Sensor
Photodetector in a Pixel
Optical Format and Pixel Size
CCD Image Sensor vs. CMOS Image Sensor
CCD IMAGE SENSORS; Tetsuo Yamada
Basics of CCDs
Structures and Characteristics of CCD Image Sensor
CMOS IMAGE SENSORS; Isao Takayanagi
Introduction to CMOS Image Sensors
CMOS Active Pixel Technology
Signal Processing and Noise Behavior
CMOS Image Sensors for DSC Applications
Future Prospects of CMOS Image Sensors for DSC Applications
EVALUATION OF IMAGE SENSORS; Toyokazu Mizoguchi
What is Evaluation of Image Sensors?
COLOR THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION TO DIGITAL STILL CAMERAS; Po-Chieh Hung
Camera Spectral Sensitivity
Characterization of a Camera
Conversion for Display (Color Management)
IMAGE-PROCESSING ALGORITHMS; Kazuhiro Sato
Basic Image-Processing Algorithms
Camera Control Algorithm
Advanced Image Processing: How to Obtain Improved Image Quality
IMAGE-PROCESSING ENGINES; Seiichiro Watanabe
Key Characteristics of an Image-Processing Engine
Imaging Engine Architecture Comparison
Analog Front End (AFE)
Digital Back End (DBE)
Future Design Engines
EVALUATION OF IMAGE QUALITY; Hideaki Yoshida
What is Image Quality?
General Items or Parameters
Detailed Items or Factors
Standards Relating to Image Quality
SOME THOUGHTS ON FUTURE DIGITAL STILL CAMERAS; Eric R. Fossum
The Future of DSC Image Sensors
Some Future Digital Cameras
"This book is on the basic foundations of digital still cameras … It includes both the theory and the concepts of both the hardware being used and the software that ties everything together … Dr. Nakamura has gotten a group of people from various companies to write chapters on their own area of expertise. … [These companies are] a who's who of the digital camera field including: Konica Minolta, Canon, Olympus, Fuji, and various specialized companies…"