With oil spills occurring worldwide, much media and practical attention has been given in recent years to the rapidly maturing field of hydrocarbon bioremediation, particularly with application to marine spills. Hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater, although less visible, is even more widespread and has provided the background for the numerous studies presented in this book, in addition to those devoted to shoreline spills. Chapters address a wide variety of theory and practice and cover important subjects such as biofiltration, natural attenuation, surfactants, and the use of in situ bioventing compared to soil venting. This unique book represents the collective global experience of practitioners and researchers in North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. It describes experiences in tying laboratory studies to field applications. Nowhere else can anyone involved in hydrocarbon bioremediation find more up-to-date, relevant information on field experience using the various techniques and combinations of techniques in remediating hydrocarbons by biological means.
Table of Contents
Removal of Gasoline Volatile Organic Compounds via Air Biofiltration: A Technique for Treating Secondary Air Emissions from Vapor-Extraction and Air-Stripping Systems. Biofiltration for Treatment of Gasoline Vapors. Development of a Bioreactor to Purify Groundwater. A Vadose Column Treatability Test for Bioventing Applications. Cost Effectiveness and Feasibility Comparison of Bioventing vs. Conventional Soil Venting. The Effects of Soil Type, Crude Oil Type and Loading, Oxygen, and Commercial Bacteria on Crude Oil Bioremediation Kinetics as Measured by Soil Respirometry. Biostimulation Versus Bioaugmentation-Three Case Studies. Nitrate-Based Bioremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Aquifer at Park City, Kansas: Site Characterization and Treatability Study. Application of Nitrate as Electron Acceptor at an in Situ Bioremediation of an Abandoned Refinery Site: Pilot Study and Large-Scale Operation. Applying Field-Expedient Bioreactors and Landfarming in Alaskan Climates. Bioremediation of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Monitoring Safety and Efficacy. In Situ Bioremediation: An Integrated System Approach. In Situ Bioremediation of a Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Contaminated Site with Integrated Laboratory Simulation Experiments. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on the in Situ Biodegradation of Organic Chemicals in a Simulated Groundwater System. The Evolution of a Technology: Hydrogen Peroxide in in Situ Bioremediation. Bioremediation of Oil-Contaminated Shorelines: The Role of Carbon in Fertilizers. Limitations on the Biodegradation Rate of Dissolved BTEX in a Natural, Unsaturated, Sandy Soil: Evidence from Field and Laboratory Experiments. Heterogeneity in Contaminant Concentration and Microbial Activity in Subsurface Sediments. Natural Bioreclamation of Alkylbenzenes (BTEX) from a Gasoline Spill in Methanogenic Groundwater. The Use of Internal Chemical Indicators in Petroleum and Refined Products to Evaluate the Extent of Biodegradation. The Role of Surfactants in Enhanced in Situ Bioremediation. Venting and Bioventing for the in Situ Removal of Petroleum from Soil. Optimizing in Situ Bioremediation at a Pilot Site. Dissolution Kinetics of Toluene Pools in Saturated Porous Media. Enhanced Aerobic Bioremediation of a Gasoline-Contaminated Aquifer by Oxygen-Releasing Barriers. Maximization of Methylosinus Trichosporium OB3b Soluble Methane Monooxygenase Production in Batch Culture. Biodegradation of Naphthenic Acids and the Reduction of Acute Toxicity of Oil Sands Tailings. Oxidation Capacity of Aquifer Sediment. Bioremediation: A South African Experience. Natural Bioremediation of a Gasoline Spill. Aggregation of Oil- and Brine-Contaminated Soil to Enhance Bioremediation. Evaluation of Liposome-Encapsulated Casein as a Nutrient Source for Oil Spill Bioremediation. Bioremediation and Physical Removal of Oil on Shore. The Role of Biosurfactants in Biotic Degradation of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds. In Situ Bioremediation in Arctic Canada. Monitoring an Aboveground Bioreactor at a Petroleum Refinery Site Using Radiorespirometry and Gene Probes: Effects of Winter Conditions and Clayey Soil. Biotreatment of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Containing Sludges by Land Application: A Case History and Prospects for Future Treatment. Matrix Effects on the Analytical Techniques Used to Monitor the Full-Scale Biological Land Treatment of Diesel Fuel-Contaminated Soils. Initial Results from a Bioventing System with Vapor Recirculation. Field Demonstration of Natural Biological Attenuation. Aspects of Soil Venting Design. Advances in Vacuum Heap Bioremediation at a Fixed-Site Facility: Emissions and Bioremediation Rate. Biodegradation of BTEX Compounds in a Biofilm System under Nitrate-Reducing Conditions. Bioremediation of Waste Oil-Contaminated Gravels via Slurry Reactor Technology. Evaluation of an in Situ Bioremediation Using Hydrogen Peroxide. Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil. The Use of Multiple Oxygen Sources and Nutrient Delivery Systems to Effect in Situ Bioremediation of Saturated and Unsaturated Soils. Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation Specificity of an Enriched Denitrifying Mixed Culture. Bacterial Degradation under Iron-Reducing Conditions. Laboratory Feasibility Study for Bioremediation of a Kerosene-Contaminated Site. Distribution of Nonaqueous Phase Liquid in a Layered Sandy Aquifer. Review of Bioremediation Experience in Alaska. Cold Climate Applications of Bioventing. A Simple Method for Determining Deficiency of Oxygen during Soil Remediation. Author List. Index.