Mexican and Central American undocumented immigrants, as well as U.S. citizens such as Puerto Ricans and Mexican-Americans, have become a significant portion of the U.S. population. Yet the U.S. government, mainstream society, and radical activists characterize this rich diversity of peoples and cultures as one group alternatively called "Hispanics," "Latinos," or even the pejorative "Illegals." How has this racializing of populations engendered governmental policies, police profiling, economic exploitation, and even violence that afflict these groups? From a variety of settings-New York, New Jersey, Los Angeles, Central America, Cuba-this book explores this question in considering both the national and international implications of U.S. policy. Its coverage ranges from legal definitions and practices to popular stereotyping by the public and the media, covering such diverse topics as racial profiling, workplace discrimination, mob violence, treatment at border crossings, barriers to success in schools, and many more. It shows how government and social processes of racializing are too seldom understood by mainstream society, and the implication of attendant policies are sorely neglected.
Table of Contents
List of Figures and Tables Introduction Racializing Latinos: Historical Background and Current Forms Jose A. Cobas, Jorge Duany, and Joe R. Feagin Chapter 1 Pigments of Our Imagination: On the Racialization and Racial Identities of "Hispanics" and "Latinos" Ruben G. Rumbaut Chapter 2 Counting Latinos in the U.S. Census Clara E. Rodriguez Chapter 3 Becoming Dark: The Chilean Experience in California, 1848-1870 Fernando Purcell Chapter 4 Repression and Resistance: The Lynching of Persons of Mexican Origin in the United States, 1848-1928 William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb Chapter 5 Opposite One-Drop Rules: Mexican Americans, African Americans, and the Need to Reconceive Turn-of-the-Twentieth-Century Race Relations Laura E. Gomez Chapter 6 Racializing the Language Practices of U.S. Latinos: Impact on Their Education Ofelia Garcia Chapter 7 English-Language Spanish in the United States as a Site of Symbolic Violence Jane H. Hill Chapter 8 Racialization among Cubans and Cuban Americans Lisandro Perez Chapter 9 Racializing Miami: Immigrant Latinos and Colorblind Racism in the Global City Elizabeth Aranda, Rosa E. Chang, and Elena Sabogal Chapter 10 Blacks, Latinos, and the Immigration Debate: Conflict and Cooperation in Two Global Cities Xochitl Bada and Gilberto Cardenas Chapter 11 Central American Immigrants and Racialization in a Post-Civil Rights Era Nestor P. Rodriguez and Cecilia Menjivar Chapter 12 Agency and Structure in Panethnic Identity Formation: The Case of Latino/a Entrepreneurs Zulema Valdez Chapter 13 Racializing Ethnicity in the Spanish-Speaking Caribbean: A Comparison of Haitians in the Dominican Republic and Dominicans in Puerto Rico Jorge Duany Chapter 14 Transnational Racializations: The Extension of Racial Boundaries from Receiving to Sending Societies Wendy D. Roth Contributors Index