Provides new concepts that emphasize the absorbed dose and risk assessmentDelineates dermal absorption and tissue dose issues related to drug delivery, occupational exposure, and toxic waste site exposureEmphasizes the comparative routes of exposure resulting in distinctly different dose and toxicological effectsCovers physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling (PBPK) for dermal dosePresents new models in skin researchAddresses the role epidemiology plays in assessing the hazards of toxicants
Health Risk Assessment is a comprehensive reference focusing on dermal absorption, cholinesterase inhibition, adverse reproductive effects, and carcinogenicity. The book features contributions from over 40 top scientists and covers topics such as PBPK modeling, cytochrome P-450 metabolism in skin, percutaneous absorption, adverse effects, new skin models, and the role of epidemiology in assessing the hazards of toxicants. Health Risk Assessment is essential for toxicologists, environmental chemists, pharmacologists, risk assessors, and managers working in industrial, pesticide, and pharmaceutical development. The book will also benefit individuals in environmental, regulatory, and registration affairs, as well as academicians and students.
Table of Contents
PHARMACOKINETICS, METABOLISM, AND PERCUTANEOUS PENETRATION OF THE SKIN. Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Predict Tissue Dose and Cholinesterase Inhibition in Workers Exposed to Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides (J.B. Knaak, M.A. Al-Bayati, and O.G. Raabe). The Application of Pharmacokinetic Models to Predict Target Dose (Jerry N. Blancato and Kenneth B. Bischoff). Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Drugs and Carcinogens in Skin (Hasan Mukhtar and Rajesh Agarwal). Percutaneous Absorption (Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach). In Vitro Skin Metabolism (Robert L. Bronaugh and Steven W. Collier). Animal Models for Percutaneous Absorption (Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach). A Comparative Study of the Kinetics and Bioavailability of Pure and Soil-Absorbed Benzene, Toluene, and M-Xylene After Dermal Exposure (Mohamed S. Abdel-Rahman, Gloria A. Slowronski, and Rita M. Turkall). Prediction of Human Percutaneous Absorption with Physicochemical Data (Robert L. Bronaugh and Curtis N. Barton). Dermal Absorption of TCDD: Effect of Age (Yolanda B. Banks and Linda S. Birnbaum). Percutaneous Absorption of Chemicals from Water During Swimming and Bathing (Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach). Percutaneous Absorption of Chemicals from Soil (David A.W. Bucks and Howard I. Maibach). ROUTE OF EXPOSURE AND TOXICOLOGICAL RESPONSE. General Overview on Toxicological Responses and Routes of Chemical Exposure (Rhoda G.M. Wang). Acute Toxicity Testing by the Dermal Route (R.C. Myers and L.R. DePass). Subchronic Dermal Exposure Studies with Industrial Chemicals (David W. Hobson). The Dose Response of Percutaneous Absorption (Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach). Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Studies by Cutaneous Administration (R. W. Tyl, R.G. York, and J.L. Schardein). Dermal Carcinogenicity Studies of Petroleum-Derived Materials (Richard H. McKee and James J. Freeman). Comparison of Results from Carcinogenicity Tests of Two Halogenated Compounds by Oral, Dermal, and Inhalation Routes (Elizabeth K. Weisburger). The Objectives and Goals of Dermal Carcinogenicity Testing of Petroleum Liquids (James J. Freeman and Richard H. McKee). Chemical Carcinogenesis in Skin: Causation, Mechanism, and Role of Oncogenes (Rajesh Agarwal and Hasan Mukhtar). DOSE, TOXICITY, AND RISK ASSESSMENT. Incorporating Biological Information into the Assessment of Cancer Risk to Humans Under Various Exposure Conditions and Issues Related to High Background Tumor Incidence Rates (Chao W. Chen and Kim-Chi Hoang). Phototoxicity of Topical and Systemic Agents (Francis N. Marzulli and Howard I. Maibach). Techniques for Assessing the Health Risks of Dermal Contact with Chemicals in the Environment (Dennis J. Paustenbach and Hon-Wing Leung). Interspecies Extrapolation of Toxicological Data (Curtis C. Travis). NEW MODELS IN SKIN RESEARCH. Human Skin Xenografts to Athymic Rodents as a System to Study Toxins Delivered to or Through the Skin (Gerald G. Drueger and Lynn K. Pershing). The Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flap (J.E. Riviere). EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ROUTE OF EXPOSURE AND HEALTH EFFECTS. Perspectives on Assessment of Risk from Dermal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Christopher J. Borgert, Stephen M. Roberts, Robert C. James, and Raymond D. Harbison). The Paradox of Herbicide 2, 4-D Epidemiology (Gregory G. Bond and Ralph R. Cook). A Review of Epidemiologic Studies with Regard to Routes of Exposure to Toxicants (Anthony P. Polednak). Index.