The first of its kind, this new book takes a unique look at hazardous wastes. Designed in a compact form, it is an easy-to-understand book on the chemistry and toxicology of hazardous substances and wastes. It begins with a basic coverage of chemistry and biochemistry, environmental chemical processes, and toxicology. Detailed chapters discuss the chemistry and toxicology of inorganic and organic hazardous substances and biohazards. The fully documented text explains procedures for eliminating, detoxifying, and disposing of hazardous wastes with continual reference to their basic chemistry and toxicology. Hazardous Waste Chemistry, Toxicology, and Treatment is an indispensable reference guide for everyone involved with hazardous substances, wastes, toxicology, and basic chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry. This title is an ideal textbook for senior and graduate level courses studying hazardous substances, hazardous wastes, and industrial hygiene.
Table of Contents
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTES. Introduction. Classification of Hazardous Substances and Wastes. Physical Forms and Segregation of Wastes. Hazardous Waste Management: Generation, Treatment and Disposal. Appropriate Treatment Technologies. Land Disposal of Wastes. Hazardous Substances and Health. Short-Term Actions and Long-Term Remedies. GENERAL CHEMISTRY AND ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Introduction. Elements. Chemical Bonding. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Solutions. Organic Chemistry. Organic Formulas, Structures, and Names. Aromatic Organic Compounds. Organic Functional Groups. Synthetic Polymers. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL PROCESSES. What is Environmental Chemistry? Aquatic Chemistry. Oxidation Reduction and Bacteria. Complexation and Chelation. Water Interactions with Other Phases. Water Pollutants. Water Treatment. Soil. The Atmosphere. Oxides in the Atmosphere. Hydrocarbons and Photochemical Smog. Particulate Matter. Indicator Chemicals. BIOCHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY. Biochemistry and Toxicology. Proteins. Carbohydrates and Lipids. Enzymes. Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions of Xenobiotic Substances. Poisons and Toxicology. Toxicities. Toxicants in the Body. Teratogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Carcinogenesis. Immune System Response. Health Hazards. Toxicology and Risk Assessment. CHEMICAL PERSPECTIVES OF HAZARDS. Introduction. Flammable and Combustible Substances. Reactive Substances. Corrosive Substances. Toxic Substances. Hazardous Substances by Chemical Class. Origins and Amounts of Hazardous Wastes. CHEMISTRY OF INORGANIC HAZARDOUS WASTES. Classes of Inorganic Hazardous Wastes. Elements in Hazardous Substances. Hazardous Elemental Forms. Hazardous Inorganic Compounds. Hazardous Organometallic Substances. TOXICOLOGY OF INORGANIC HAZARDOUS WASTES. Introduction. Toxic Elements and Elemental Forms. Toxic Inorganic Compounds. Organometallic Compounds. ORGANIC HAZARDOUS WASTES. Organic Hazardous Waste Forms. Hydrocarbons. Organooxygen Compounds. Organonitrogen Compounds. Organohalide Compounds. Organosulfur Compounds. Organophosphorus Compounds. Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Dioxins in Hazardous Wastes. TOXICOLOGY OF ORGANIC HAZARDOUS WASTES. Introduction. Hydrocarbons. Oxygen-Containing Organic Compounds. Organonitrogen Compounds. Organohalide Compounds. Organosulfur Compounds. Organophosphorus Compounds. BIOHAZARDS. Introduction. Infectious Wastes. Incineration of Biomedical Wastes. Hazardous Natural Products. Biological Warfare Agents. REDUCTION, RECYCLING, AND RESOURCE RECOVERY. Overview of Waste Treatment for Resource Recovery. Waste Management for Resource Recovery. Recycling. Waste Oil Utilization and Recovery. Recovery of Solutes from Wastewater. Recovery of Water from Wastewater. Solvent Recovery. PHYSICAL TREATMENT. Physical Treatment Processes. Phase Transition. Filtration, Sedimentation, and Particle Removal. Membrane Processes. Sorption. Distillation and Stripping. Drying and Evaporation. Extraction. CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL TREATMENT. Introduction. Acid/Base Neutralization. Chemical Precipitation. Chemical Flocculation. Oxidation/Reduction. Electrolysis. Reaction with Water. Chemical Extraction and Leaching. Ion Exchange. Chemical Destruction of PCBs. Photolytic Reactions. Biodegradation of Wastes. Factors Involved in Biological Treatment. Aerobic Treatment of Organic Wastes. Anaerobic Treatment of Organic Wastes. Composting and Land Treatment. Bacterial Destruction of PCBs. THERMAL TREATMENT AND INCINERATION. Thermal Treatment Methods. Incinerable Wastes. Types of Incinerators. Soil Incineration. Emissions and Residues from Incineration. Emissions Removal. Wet Air Oxidation. IMMOBILIZATION, FIXATION, AND DISPOSAL. Immobilization. Chemical Fixation. Physical Fixation. Ultimate Disposal. In-Situ Treatment. Leachate and Gas Emissions. INDEX.
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