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First introduced about a decade ago, the first edition of the Handbook of Semiconductor Interconnection Technology became widely popular for its thorough, integrated treatment of interconnect technologies and its forward-looking perspective. The field has grown tremendously in the interim and many of the "likely directions" outlined in the first edition are now standard in modern facilities. Reflecting those advances, this edition delves into the practical aspects of interconnections for manufacturing. It examines the interconnect and fabrication technologies now available, with an examination of future prospects for the field.
What's in this Edition:
Detailed discussion of electrochemical equipment for plating copper
Information on tools used for evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, and plasma processes
Emphasis on measurement of mechanical and thermal properties of insulators
Methods for characterizing porous dielectric thin films
Greater focus on integration issues and properties of titanium, cobalt, and nickel silicides
Process schemes based on the increased need for borderless contact gates and source/drain
Expanded discussion on choices for low-dielectric insulators
Concentration on electroplated copper, especially morphology of plated films and their properties
Developments in thin film liners and barriers
Expanded material on copper reliability
Table of Contents
METHODS/PRINCIPLES OF DEPOSITION AND ETCHING OF THIN FILMS; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz Introduction Evaporation Chemical Vapor Deposition Photoenhanced CVD Plasma Processing Electrochemical Deposition Spin Coating Conclusion References CHARACTERIZATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz Introduction Optical Characterization of Dielectric Films Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy Resistivity of Metal Films Thickness Dielectric Constant of Dielectrics Breakdown Strength Adhesion Mechanical Properties Thermal Properties Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS): Also Called Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) Electron Microprobe X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRFS) Hydrogen Analysis Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) Specular X-Ray Reflectivity (SXR) Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) Ellipsometric Porosimetry (EP) Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) Thermal Wave-Modulated Optical Reflectance Imaging (TW) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Wet Chemical Methods Chromatography Other Analytical Techniques Thermometry Electrochemical Methods Plasma Diagnostics References SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT TECHNOLOGY; David R. Campbell, Revised by Catherine Ivers Introduction Importance of Contact Technology Electrical Aspects of Silicon Contacts Material Aspects Ohmic Contacts Active Device Contacts Contact Studs for ULSI Conclusions References INTERLEVEL DIELECTRICS; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan Introduction Inorganic Dielectric Films Spin-On Glasses (SOGs) Low Dielectric Constant Films Barrier Dielectric Film: a-SiC:H Porous Dielectric Films Plasma-Assisted Etching of Organic Films Reactive Ion Etching of Low-e Interlevel Dielectric Films Conclusions References METALLIZATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan Introduction Aluminum Aluminum Alloys Copper Tungsten Patterning of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Patterning of Copper Patterning of Tungsten Structure of Metal Films Chapter Summary References CHIP INTEGRATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan Introduction Topography, Step Coverage, and Planarization Spin-On Films Step Coverage by Deposited Films In Situ Planarization/Gap-Fill of Dielectric Films Etch-Back Processes Step Coverage, Hole-Fill Planarization of Metals Evaporation Sputter Deposition of Metals Directional Sputtering High-Density Plasmas Beam Techniques Flowage of Metal Films CVD Metals Electrochemical Deposition of Copper Embedment (Inlaid) Processes Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) CMP of Inorganic Dielectric Films CMP of Low-e Films CMP of Metals Post-CMP Cleaning Problems with CMP Impact of CMP Conclusions on Topography Remaining Issues for Chip Integration Process/Structure Choice Conflicts Processes Reliability Manufacturability Wafer Size Concluding Remarks on Compatibility of Materials and Processing References RELIABILITY; James R. Lloyd and Kenneth P. Rodbell Introduction Thin-Film Interconnect Reliability Behavior of Thin-Film Conductors in Stress Voiding and Electromigration Testing Electromigration Behavior of Via Chains Corrosion Insulator Reliability Concluding Remarks References INDEX
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