Freshwater field tests are an integral part of the process of hazard assessment of pesticides and other chemicals in the environment. This book brings together international experts on microcosms and mesocosms for a critical appraisal of theory and practice on the subject of freshwater field tests for hazard assessment. It is an authoritative and comprehensive summary of knowledge about freshwater field tests, with particular emphasis on their optimization for scientific and regulatory purposes. This valuable reference covers both lotic and lentic outdoor systems and addresses the choice of endpoints and test methodology. Instructive case histories show how to extrapolate test results to the real world.
Table of Contents
Endpoints in Aquatic Field Tests: The Concept of Ecological Stability Applied to Aquatic Ecosystems (A. Seitz). On the Choice of Structural Parameters and Endpoints to Indicate Responses of Freshwater Ecosystems to Pesticide Stress (T.C.M. Brock and B.J. Budde). Functional Endpoints in Field Testing (K. Kersting). Interpreting the Results of Agricultural Microcosm Tests: Linking Laboratory and Experimental Field Results to Predictions of Effect in Natural Ecosystems (T.W. La Point). Structural and Taxonomic Types of Zooperiphyton as Criteria of Freshwater Field Testing (I.A. Skalskaya). Methodologies of Aquatic Field Tests: Prediction of Exposure Concentrations in Surface Waters (P. Groenendijk, J.W.H. van der Kolk, and K.Z. Travis). System Design for Field Tests in Flowing Waters: Design and Use of Outdoor Artificial Streams in Ecotoxicology (G.C. Mitchell). Methodologies of Aquatic Field Tests: System Design for Field Tests in Still Waters (F. Heimbach). Sampling and Analysis of the Test Chemical in Microcosms and Mesocosms (J.M. Giddings). Sampling and Analysis Strategy for Biological Effects in Freshwater Field Tests (J.H. Kennedy, Z.B. Johnson, and P.C. Johnson). Are Aquatic Macrophytes Useful in Field Tests? (G. Blake). Large-Scale Outdoor Microcosms: Tools for Ecological Assessment of Pesticides (J.M. Giddings, R.L. Helm, and F.J. deNoyelles, Jr.). Use of Limnocorrals for Assessing the Aquatic Fate and Effects of Pesticides (K. Liber). Case Studies of Aquatic Field Tests: Comparison of Chlorpyrifos Fate and Effects in Outdoor Aquatic Micro- and Mesocosms of Various Scale and Construction (P. Leeuwangh). Review of Aquatic Field Tests with Pyrethroid Insecticides (I.R. Hill, J.L. Shaw, and S.J. Maund). Atrazine in Aquatic Test Systems: An Evaluation of Ecotoxicological Risks (W. Huber). Review of Experimental Microcosm, Mesocosm, and Field Tests Used to Evaluate the Potential Hazard of Surfactants to Aquatic Life and the Relation to Single Species Data (S.E. Belanger). Fate of Chlorpyrifos in Indoor Microcosms and Outdoor Experimental Ditches (S.J.H. Crum and T.C.M. Brock). Response of Aquatic Outdoor Microcosms of the "Split-Pond" Type to Chemical Contamination (R. Draxl, K.E. Neugebaur-Büchler, F.-J. Zieris, and W. Huber). The Effects of Lambda-Cyhalothrin in Aquatic Field Studies (M.J. Hamer, I.R. Hill, L. Rondon, and A. Caguan). Comparison of the Effects of a Herbicide (Metamitron) in Outdoor Pond "Microcosms" and in Standardized Laboratory Tests (F. Heimbach). Effects of Lambda-Cyhalothrin on Aquatic Organisms in Large-Scale Mesocosms (I.R. Hill, J.K. Runnalls, J.H. Kennedy, and P. Ekoniak). Aquatic Testing of Trichlorphon in the Laboratory and Field (Z. Svobodova and R. Faina). The Role of Periphyton in Primary Production in Outdoor Microcosms Treated with 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) (A. Thielcke and H.-T. Ratte). Extrapolation and Hazard Assessment: Field Validation of Predictions Based on Laboratory Toxicity Tests (G. Persoone and C.R. Janssen). Modelling of Aquatic Field Tests for Hazard Assessment (H.-T. Ratte, H.J. Poethke, U. Dülmer, and U. Hommen). The Role of Field Tests in Hazard Assessment of Chemicals (K. van Leeuwen, H.-J. Emans, E. Van De Plassche, and H. Canton). Hazard Assessment from Field Tests in the U.K.: Pond Mesocosms and Microcosms-The Need for a Flexible Approach to Experiment Design (R.R. Stephenson). Hazard Assessment from Field Tests in Germany (H. Köpp). Guidelines for Pesticide Hazard Assessment with Freshwater Field Tests at the International Level (P. Matthiessen). Models for Hazard Assessment-Problems and Perspectives (H.J. Poethke, D. Oertel, and A. Seitz). Modelling and Other Issues: The "Dreissena-Monitor"-Improved Evaluation of Dynamic Limits for the Establishment of Alarm-Thresholds During Toxicity Tests and for Continuous Water Control (J. Borcherding). A Proposed Test Method for the Assessment of Pesticide Impact on Sediment Dwelling Larvae of the Midge Chironomus riparius (G.P. Dohmen and K.L. Barrett). Application of a Plankton Simulation Model to Outdoor-Microcosm Case Studies (U. Hommen and H.-T. Ratte). A Computer Program to Evaluate Plankton Data from Freshwater Field Tests (U. Hommen, D. Veith, and U. Dülmer). pH as a Functional Endpoint of Chemical Hazard Assessment in Aquatic Outdoor Microcosms (K.E. Neugebaur-Büchler, R. Draxl, F.-J. Zieris, and W. Huber). What Is Known on Natural Limiting Factors for Macrozoobenthos Species in Freshwaters? (D. Neumann, M. Volpers, I. Raschke, U. Grauel, and F. Cichos). The pT-Value as an Indicator of Toxicity in the Aquatic Environment (W. Sloof and D. de Zwart). Modelling Studies of the Applicability of Micro- and Mesocosm Approaches for Ecotoxicological Investigations (P.P. Umorin). Index.