Covers all important areas of foam extrusion-from scientific basics to engineering practice
Brings together the experience of specialists from industry, research organizations and universities
Contains over 100 photographs, micrographs, flow charts and other schematics
Includes 50 supplementary data tables
Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice combines the science of foam with the engineering of extrusion processes in one comprehensive volume, joining scientific principles and engineering practice. Starting with the fundamentals and then moving to phase separation, the text lays the scientific foundation in such a manner that the microscopic transition from a nucleus to a void (nucleation) and macroscopic movement from a void to an object (formation) are plausibly addressed. The last section of the book presents interesting foam extrusion developments, demonstrating how scientific findings can be applied to the engineering field, from principles to batch experimentation and continuous foaming. Each chapter concludes with a section of references for further study, and most include a nomenclature section and/or summary section as well. Drawing from the experience of the editor and the authors, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice captures the interesting evolution of foam extrusion, and offers a solid foundation for future developments. It is an informative guide for anyone involved with this field.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION Thermoplastic Foam Foam Extrusion Recent Developments Outline of the Book STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS OF GAS SOLUBILITY IN POLYMERS Introduction Thermodynamics Statistical Thermodynamics Methodology Experiment versus Theory Outlook RHEOLOGY OF THERMOPLASTIC FOAM EXTRUSION PROCESS Introduction Shear Rheology of Blowing Agent-Charged Polymeric Systems Extensional Rheology for Extrusion Foaming of Polymers Elongational Rheology of Blowing Agent-Charged Polymeric Systems Conclusion FOAM NUCLEATION IN GAS-DISPERSED POLYMERIC SYSTEMS Introduction Equilibrium Considerations Conventional Nucleation Theories Cavitation Foam Extrusion Nucleation Summary Nomenclature FOAM GROWTH IN POLYMERS Introduction Importance Literature Review: Cell Model Foam Growth Experiment Foam Growth Modeling Foam Growth Equations Boundary Conditions Theory versus Experiment Conclusions Nomenclature POLYMERIC FOAMING SIMULATION: BATCH AND CONTINUOUS Introduction Batch Foaming Continuous Foaming Conclusions Nomenclature PROCESS DESIGN FOR THERMOPLASTIC FOAM EXTRUSION Introduction High-Density Structural Foam Process Low-Density Foam Process Die Design Procedures for Foam Extrusion FOAM EXTRUSION MACHINERY FEATURES Preface Regarding Extruders for Foaming Basic Properties of Extruders Extruder Types, Support Devices, and Placement of Subprocesses General Extruder Observations MIXING DESIGN FOR FOAM EXTRUSION: ANALYSIS AND PRACTICES Introduction Thermoplastic Foam Extrusion Processes Mixing-Theories and Experiments Mixing Practices in Single and Twin-Screw Extruders Process Challenges Summary Nomenclature FOAMING AGENTS FOR FOAM EXTRUSION Introduction Physical Foaming Agents Chemical Foaming Agents CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF HIGH-DENSITY AND LOW-DENSITY MICROCELLULAR PLASTICS IN EXTRUSION Introduction Previous Studies on Batch and Semi-continuous Microcellular Processing Background on Microcellular Plastics Processing Formation of a Single Phase Polymer/Gas Solution Microcellular Nucleation Control Suppression of Cell Coalescence Promotion of Large Volume Expansion Experimental Set-Up Experiments and Discussion Summary and Conclusions Nomenclature FOAM EXTRUSION OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (PET) Introduction Review of PET Chemistry and Processing Characteristics Foaming with Physical Blowing Agents Foaming with Chemical Blowing Agents Conclusion
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