Small and big persons, disabled and elderly, expectant mothers and children. Everyone will fall into one of these categories at least once in their lifetime. In fact, demographics show that at least two of every five people vary from the norm in height, width, and weight at any given time. Yet customarily, designers design for adults of regular size with standard abilities. Written by an expert in human factors and ergonomics, Extraordinary Ergonomics explores designing for population groups that do not meet the customary standards in age, size, and abilities.
Underscoring the need for extraordinary ergonomics, the book illustrates various approaches to measuring the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of those who differ from the norm. It provides the how-tos of designing for people who are smaller, weaker, or bigger, discusses specifically the design for persons with disabilities and the aging population, and covers human factors engineering for expectant mothers and ergonomics for children and teenagers. The author explains how to assess and determine abilities and needs and demonstrates how to design tools, homes, and environments to make working space safe and living space easy.
Table of Contents
"EXTRAORDINARY" INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS OF PEOPLE
Defining Extraordinary Individuals and Population Groups
A Day in the Life of My Mother
Differing from "The Norm"
Capabilities of the Mind
Sensing the Environment
Responding to Stimuli
ASSESSMENT METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Assessing Energetic Capabilities
Assessing Muscle Strength
Assessing Mental Workload
Assessing Vision Capabilities
Assessing Auditory Capabilities
Assessing Smelling and Tasting Capabilities
Assessing Taction Senses
Assessing Response Times
Assessing Complex Capabilities
Systematic Gathering of Information
PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING
Striving for Better Designs
Proper Design Procedures
Designing for Body Strength
Designing for "Signal Loop"
Designing for Groups of People, and for Individuals
DESIGN FOR MOVEMENT WITH SPECIAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE VERY SMALL & BIG, FOR THOSE WITH LOW BACK PROBLEMS, AND FOR BEDRIDDEN PERSONS
Design for Motion Instead of Posture
Design for Very Small and Very Big People
Design to Avoid Harm and Injury
DESIGN FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
Defining and Measuring Disabilities
"Ergonomics of One"
Use of Computers
Selection of Assistive Technology
Sources of Information and Advice
DESIGN FOR AGING
What to Expect as One Ages
Aging-Related Changes and Their Ergonomic Counteractions
Designing for the Older Person
Designing Computer Systems for the Aging
Designing Living Quarters for the Aging
Sources of Information and Advice
DESIGN FOR EXPECTANT MOTHERS
Special Designs for Women?
Changes in Body Dimensions of Expectant Mothers
Changes in Work Capacity During Pregnancy
Ergonomic Design Recommendations
DESIGN FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Children Grow into Adolescents
Anthropometry of Children and Adolescents
Body Mass of Children and Adolescents
Body Strength of Children and Adolescents
Designing for Children and Adolescents
Designing "Safe" Openings
"This book illustrates with copious detail and numerous examples how an underlying supposition of ergonomics - usually undeclared - and based on a so-called normal adult, is fundamentally flawed. This book is thorough, easy to digest, and sprinkled with anecdotal notes about human behavior. …I recommend "Extra-Ordinary" Ergonomics as part of the personal library of all professional ergonomists and human factors engineers."
-Richard W. Marklin, Ph.D., CPE, Ergonomics in Design, Vol. 14, No. 1, Winter 2006