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Offering state-of-the-art techniques for both attorneys and environmental scientists, Environmental Forensics: Principles and Applications discusses non-chemical methods such as corrosion modeling, inventory reconciliation, and aerial photography interpretation. The book also covers chemical fingerprinting used to identify the origin and age of a contaminant release- relevant techniques include the use of radioactive isotope analysis, degradation modeling based on half-lives, and fuel additives such as MTBE. Environmental Forensics provides case study examples of environmental trial exhibits. It covers misused techniques that can bias the scientific validity of a trial exhibit, such as scale exaggeration, use of statistical manipulation, data contouring, and selective presentation. Detailed information is provided for identifying and interpreting those portions of environmental reports that are "target rich" sources of scientific biases. These include the identification of false positive, false negative and the intentional manipulation of environmental data that occurs primarily in the sample collection process.
Table of Contents
AN OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY, CHEMISTRY AND TRANSPORT OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS Introduction Chronology and Use of Chlorinated Solvents Chemistry and Properties of Chlorinated Solvents Transport of Chlorinated Solvents through Soil Impact of Cosolvency on Transport through Soil Transport of Vapors in Soil Transport through the Capillary Fringe Transport in Groundwater References CHEMISTRY AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS Introduction Chemistry of Crude Oil Chemistry of Refined Products Chemical Reactions in the Vadose Zone Overview of Transport through the Unsaturated (Vadose) Zone Hydrocarbon Interactions at the Capillary Fringe Transport in Groundwater References IDENTIFICATION OF BIASED ENVIRONMENTAL DATA Introduction Geologic Characterization Interpretation of Geologic Information Soil Collection for Chemical Analyses Groundwater Characterization Soil Vapor Surveys Analytical Methods References FORENSIC TECHNIQUES USED IN ENVIRONMENTAL LITIGATION Introduction Aerial Photography Underground Storage Tank Corrosion Models Inventory Reconciliation Commercial Availability of a Chemical Chemicals and Formulations Unique to a Manufacturing Process or Activity Petroleum Refinery Throughput Analysis Chemical Identification of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Radioactive Isotope Dating Chemical and Biological Degradation Models: Petroleum Hydrocarbons Rapid Optical Screening Tool™ Testing References CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT MODELING Introduction Liquid Transport through Pavement Vapor Transport through Pavement Contaminant Transport in Soil Contaminant Transport in Groundwater Application of Groundwater Modeling in Environmental Litigation References FORENSIC REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRIAL EXHIBITS Introduction Exaggerated Vertical and Horizontal Scales Selective Data Presentation Data Contouring References APPENDICES Appendix A - Sample Calculation for the Transport of PCE Vapor through Concrete Pavement Appendix B - Sample Calculation for the Transport of PCE Liquid Through Concrete via Diffusion Appendix C - Properties of Alcohol Oxygenates and Ether Oxygenates Appendix D - Advective and Partitioning Transport Equations of Radon for Detecting Diesel in Groundwater Appendix F - Chemical and Commerical Synonyms for Selected Chlorinated Solvents and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Appendix G - Laboratory Terms and Definitions INDEX
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CHOICE – Outstanding Academic Title – Award Winner
CHOICE – 2018 Outstanding Academic Title – Award Winner
Shingo Research and Professional Publication Award Winner
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