Contains rules of thumb on the correct way to ground and shield without having to relearn Maxwell's equations
Provides examples based on the authors' experience in the field
Focuses on practical applications with a minimum of theory
Co-published with the IEEE Press, this book is a practical, hands-on guide to EMC issues for medical device designers and installers. It addresses electromagnetic interference and covers the basics of EMC design, physics, and installation, minimizing theory and concentrating upon the correct way to ground and shield. Covering EMC from the inside out, the book provides the basics of electronics, discusses and evaluates problems and common causes, and explores effective remedial techniques at three levels: circuit, box, and interconnect. It contains appendices that provide important reference material such as constants and conversion factors.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION What are the Threats? Sources, Paths, and Receptors Summary
EMI STANDARDS FOR MEDICAL DEVICES Emissions vs Immunity The EU and the U.S. The EU U.S. Requirements Summary
THE PHYSICS OF EMI Source-Path-Receptor The Nature of Interference Interference is a Current FAT-ID Summary
COMPONENTS AND CIRCUITS Passive Components Transient Devices Active Components EMI Filter Design Summary
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD DESIGN Signal Integrity vs EMI EMI Issues in Printed Circuit Boards Digital Circuits Analog Circuits Where Analog Meets Digital PCB Partitioning and Critical Circuits PCB Construction Multilayer Board Stackup Isolated Planes Two-Layer Board Techniques Power Decoupling Signal Traces I/O Techniques Board Shielding Software Summary
GROUNDING FOR EMI CONTROL What is a Ground? Different Types of Grounds Microshock Hazards - A Special Medical Grounding Concern What Makes a Good Ground? Ground Topologies Bonding Considerations Grounding Design and Guidelines Summary
POWER AND POWER FILTERING Power Supplies Switching Topologies Interference in Power Supplies Controlling Interference Generation Immunity Protection Filters Summary
INTERCONNECT AND MOUNTING Cables as Transmission Lines Common Mode and Differential Mode on Cables Cable Layout and Pinouts Signal Bandwidth Routing Your Cable Designing an Enclosure Summary
SHIELDING AND SHIELDING MATERIALS The Physics of Shielding Estimating the Impedance of a Source Shielding Requirements Shielding Materials Where Shielding Fails Gasketing Perforations and Screens Cable Penetrations Grounding the Shield How Much Shielding is Needed? Partial Shields Local Shields Summary
CABLES AND CONNECTIONS Cables as Antennas Common Mode vs Differential Mode Bandwidth Classifying Cables Cable Shielding and Connectors Cable Terminations Cable Design Recommendations Summary
SPECIAL EMI PROBLEMS IN MEDICAL ELECTRONICS High Energy Interference Sources Electromechanical Devices Radio Sources Receiving Devices Leakage Current Limitations Coping with Internal Threats Coping with External Threats Summary
SYSTEMS CONSIDERATIONS Identifying EMI Threats at the Site Site Preparation Maintaining Shielding Effectiveness Troubleshooting in the Field When System Fixes Will Not Work Summary
Glossary Appendix A: References for EMC Publications Appendix B: Properties of Common Materials Appendix C: Constants and Conversions Appendix D: Miscellaneous Conversions
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