Toxic chemicals can exert effects on all levels of the biological hierarchy, from cells to organs to organisms to populations to entire ecosystems. However, most risk assessment models express their results in terms of effects on individual organisms, without corresponding information on how populations, groups of species, or whole ecosystems may respond to chemical stressors. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment: Chemical Effects on Populations, Ecosystems, and Landscapes takes a new approach by compiling and evaluating models that can be used in assessing risk at the population, ecosystem, and landscape levels.
The authors give an overview of the current process of ecological risk assessment for toxic chemicals and of how modeling of populations, ecosystems, and landscapes could improve the status quo. They present a classification of ecological models and explain the differences between population, ecosystem, landscape, and toxicity-extrapolation models. The authors describe the model evaluation process and define evaluation criteria. Finally, the results of the model evaluations are presented in a concise format with recommendations on modeling approaches to use now and develop further.
The authors present and evaluate various models on the basis of their realism and complexity, prediction of relevant assessment endpoints, treatment of uncertainty, regulatory acceptance, resource efficiency, and other criteria. They provide models that will improve the ecological relevance of risk assessments and make data collection more cost-effective. Ecological Modeling in Risk Assessment serves as a reference for selecting and applying the best models when performing a risk assessment.
Table of Contents
Preface, S.E. Jørgensen and R.A. Pastorok
Introduction, R.A. Pastorok
Methods, R.A. Pastorok and H.R. Akçakaya
Results of the Evaluation of Ecological Models: Introduction, R.A. Pastorok
Population Models-Scalar Abundance, S. Ferson
Population Models-Life History, S. Carroll
Population Models-Individual-Based, H.M. Regan
Population Models-Metapopulations, H.R. Akçakaya and H. M. Regan
Ecosystem Models-Food Webs, S. Carroll
Ecosystem Models-Aquatic, S.M. Bartell
Ecosystem Models-Terrestrial, C.E. Mackay and R.A. Pastorok
Landscape Models-Aquatic and Terrestrial, C.E. Mackay and R.A. Pastorok
Toxicity-Extrapolation Models, J.A. Colton
Profiles of Selected Models, R.A. Pastorok
Enhancing the Use of Ecological Models in Environmental Decision-Making, L.R. Ginzburg and H. R. Akçakaya
Conclusions and Recommendations, R.A. Pastorok and L.R. Ginzburg
Summary, R.A. Pastorok and H.R. Akçakaya
Appendix A: Fish Population Modeling: Data Needs and Case Study, S.J. Pauwels
Appendix B: Classification Systems, K.V. Root
Appendix C: Results of the Initial Screening of Ecological Models, Model Analysis Team
"…a unique and absolutely essential source for ecotoxicologists and other scientists engaged in applying models for assessing the risks of chemicals to the environment…brings together, from the large and scattered ecological modeling literature, an encyclopedic compilation of models…The book is made more valuable by insightful comments on the use of models in risk assessment, plus a glossary of terms, and many tables, including lists of Web sites for available risk-assessment software…"
-Donald L. DeAngelis, Department of Biology, University of Miami
"…This book provides a roadmap of the available ecological models potentially useful to ecological risk analysis of chemicals. Models are organized and summarized in a systematic and consistent format that provides crucial information needed for users to readily identify models relevant to their problem. This book is an excellent starting point for the novice, as well as an excellent reference source for the experienced."
-Kenneth Rose, Coastal Fisheries Institute, Louisiana State University
"Ecological risk assessment suffers less from a lack of tools than from a lack of familiarity with the tools that are available and their potential utility. This book provides a catalog, descriptions And reviews 'Ecological models ranging from statistical extrapolation models to population, Ecosystem and landscape models. The editors are leaders in the field. They and the authors have performed a valuable service to the ecorisk community. It is now the task of practitioners to explore this array of models and determine how to implement them in specific cases using realistically available data sets." -Glenn W. Suter, II, United States EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA