Diffuse pollution of water resources has a multi-disciplinary dimension and the measures to prevent and control it are closely inter-related to the development patterns and societal habits of the region. This book aims to bridge the gaps between different specialists working in the field and to present an integrated approach for the solution of diffuse pollution problems. It focuses on cases specific to developing countries and emphasizes the need to pursue environmentally-sustainable development patterns. Basic principles, definitions and approaches are presented, enabling a common language and understanding among professionals in the field. Numerous case studies from the region, mainly related to urban sources of diffuse pollution, are included. They could be regarded as typical for any developing country, suggesting tools and methods to assess and evaluate the extent of diffuse pollution problems. The book is valuable as a supplementary text for undergraduate and postgraduate students whose studies include a component of water resources and environmental engineering and management, including degree courses in Environmental, Civil and Chemical Engineering, Soil Science, Environmental Sciences and Public Health related sciences. It is also a valuable guide for professionals and managers working in the field of Water Resources and Environmental protection.
Table of Contents
Preface, List of most common abbreviations, Book overview, List of contributing authors, CHAPTER 1 DIFFUSE POLLUTION – PRINCIPLES, DEFINITIONS AND REGULATORY ASPECTS, 1.1 Classification of pollution according to pollution pathways, 1.1.1 Point sources of pollution, 1.1.2 Non-point sources of pollution, 1.2 Classification according to pollution behavior, 1.3 Classification of pollution according to pollution characteristics, 2 POLLUTANT CONSTITUENTS, 2.1 Physical characteristics, 2.2 Chemical characteristics, 2.2.1 Inorganic constituents – specific ions and gases, 2.2.2 Inorganic constituents – nutrients, 2.2.3 Inorganic constituents – metals, 2.2.4 Organic constituents, 2.3 Biological characteristics, 3 DIFFUSE POLLUTION-GENERATION AND SOURCES, 3.1 Atmospheric depositions, 3.2 Sources of diffuse pollution in urban areas, 3.2.1 Urban drainage, 3.2.2 Other sources in urban areas, 3.3 Sources of diffuse pollution in rural areas, 3.4 Pollution concentrations and runoff events, 4 METHODS OF SURFACE RUNOFF DETERMINATION, 4.1 Rainfall excess and surface runoff, 4.2 Determining rainfall excess, 4.3 Determining surface runoff, 4.3.1 The rational method, 4.3.2 The unit hydrograph method, 4.4 Rainfall-runoff models, 5 REGULATORY APPROACHES AND INSTRUMENTS, 5.1 Basic definitions and concepts, 5.2 Basic approaches, 5.2.1 The Uniform Effluent Standards approach, 5.2.2 The Receiving Water Quality Objective approach, 5.2.3 The Waste Assimilative Capacity Concept, 5.3 Setting regulatory instruments, 5.4 Specific aspects of diffuse pollution regulation, REFERENCES, CHAPTER 2 MONITORING, ABATEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF DIFFUSE POLLUTION, 1 IDENTIFYING DIFFUSE POLLUTION, 2 MONITORING AND CONTROL OF WATER QUALITY, 2.1 The closed-loop approach to the monitoring process, 2.2 Formulation of objectives and goals, 2.3 The network design, 2.4 The choice of media, parameters and monitoring frequency, 2.5 The sampling process, 2.6 Methods of testing, 2.7 Quality assurance and evaluation, 2.8 Data h