Critical Race Theory (CRT) offers an account of society based on systemic, deep-rooted racist oppression that saturates our commonsensical judgements to such an extent that all but the most extreme racism appears normal and unexceptional, simply ‘business as usual’. CRT is one of the fastest growing and most controversial fields of contemporary social theory, and education is the discipline where its most dynamic and challenging work is taking place.
Now, answering the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of this sometimes shocking and often contentious body of thought, Routledge announces a new title in its Major Themes in Education series. In four volumes, Critical Race Theory in Education provides a unique ‘mini library’ that encompasses the very best CRT scholarship in education. As with other titles in the series, the collection’s hallmark is its combination of the canonical and the cutting edge: every selection is either an established ‘classic’ or significantly challenges and advances thinking on current issues.
The first volume (‘Tenets of Critical Race Theory in Education’) sets out the core themes that distinguish the CRT approach. Volume II (‘Whiteness and White Supremacy’), meanwhile, explores the construction and maintenance of assumptions and practices that take for granted the elevated status of white people’s interests and perspectives. The third volume (‘Global and Specific: CRT Off-shoot Movements’) focuses on the development of CRT as an approach with an international reach, while simultaneously retaining space for distinctive developments that prioritize individual social groups within their particular historic, cultural, and economic contexts. The collection’s final volume (‘Doing CRT in Education’) is dedicated to questions of method, ethics, and praxis in the everyday struggle to advance research and effect genuine anti-racist change amid systems that normalize racism and deny the legitimacy of race-conscious scholarship.
David Gillborn, the editor of the collection, is recognized internationally as a leading scholar of race inequity in education. He was one of the first writers to apply CRT outside North America.
Table of Contents
Critical Race Theory in Education: Major Themes in Education
Edited by Adrienne D. Dixson, David Gillborn, Gloria Ladson-Billings, Laurence J. Parker, Nicola Rollock, Paul Warmington.
Volume I: The Tenets of Critical Race Theory in Education
Introduction to Volume I by David Gillborn
1. The Legal and Educational Foundations of CRT
- G. Ladson-Billings & W. F. Tate, ‘Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education’, Teachers College Record, 97 (1): 1995, 47-68.
- D. Bell, ‘Racial Realism’, in K. Crenshaw, N. Gotanda, G. Peller & K. Thomas (eds), Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement (New York: New Press, 1992), pp. 302-312.
- D. Bell, ‘The Rules of Racial Standing’, in Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism (New York: Basic Books. 1992), pp. 109-126.
- P. Warmington, ‘Taking Race Out of Scare Quotes: Race-conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-racial World’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 12, 3, 2009, 281-296.
- Mathias Mööschel, ‘Race in Mainland European Legal Analysis: Towards a European Critical Race Theory’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34, 10, 2011, 1648-1664
- Gloria Ladson-Billings, ‘Critical Race Theory – What it is Not!’, in M. Lynn & A.D. Dixson (eds) Handbook of Critical Race Theory in Education (New York: Routledge, 2013), pp. 34-47.
2. The Interest Convergence Principle
- D. Bell, ‘Brown v. Board of Education and the Interest-Convergence Dilemma', in E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (eds), Foundations of Critical Race Theory in Education. (New York: Routledge, 2009), pp. 73-84. Originally published in Harvard Law Review, 93, 1980, 518-533
- Lani Guinier, ‘From Racial Liberalism to Racial Literacy: Brown v. Board of Education and the Interest-Divergence Dilemma’, The Journal of American History, June 2004, 92-118.
- Jamel K. Donnor, ‘Towards an Interest: Convergence in the Education of African-American Football Student Athletes in Major College Sports’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 8, 1, 2005, 45-67,
- Dana N. Thompson Dorsey & Terah T. Venzant Chambers, ‘Growing C-D-R (Cedar): Working the Intersections of Interest Convergence and Whiteness as Property in the Affirmative Action Legal Debate’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 17, 1, 2014, 56-87,
- Kimberlé W. Crenshaw, ‘Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics and the Violence Against Women of Color’, in E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (eds), Foundations of Critical Race Theory in Education. Second edition (New York: Routledge, 2016), pp. 223-250. Originally published in Stanford Law Review, 43, 1993, 1241–1299.
- A. Brah & A. Phoenix, ‘Ain’t I A Woman? Revisiting Intersectionality’, Journal of International Women’s Studies, 5, 3, 2004, 75-86.
- Alfredo J. Artiles, ‘Toward an Interdisciplinary Understanding of Educational Equity and Difference: The Case of the Racialization of Ability’, Educational Researcher, 40, 9, 2011, 431-445.
4. Policies and Praxis
- Richard Delgado, ‘Affirmative Action as a Majoritarian Device: Or, Do You Really Want to be a Role Model?’, Michigan Law Review, 89, 1991, 1222-1231.
- G. Ladson-Billings, ‘From the Achievement Gap to the Education Debt: Understanding Achievement in U.S. Schools’, Educational Researcher, 35, 7, 2006, 3–12.
- Laurence Parker & David O. Stovall, ‘Actions Following Words: Critical Race Theory Connects to Critical Pedagogy’, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 36, 2, 2004, 167-182,
- Jessica T. DeCuir and Adrienne D. Dixson, ‘"So When It Comes out, They Aren't That Surprised That It Is There": Using Critical Race Theory as a Tool of Analysis of Race and Racism in Education’, Educational Researcher, 33, 5, 2004, 26-31.
5. Counter-stories, Experiential Knowledge and Racial Micro-Aggressions
- Sara Ahmed, ‘Embodying Diversity: Problems and Paradoxes for Black Feminists’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 12, 1, 2009, 41-52,
- Nicola Rollock, ‘The Invisibility of Race: Intersectional Reflections on the Liminal Space of Alterity’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 15, 1, 2012, 65-84.
- Tara J. Yosso, William A. Smith, Miguel Ceja & Daniel G. Solórzano, ‘Critical Race Theory, Racial Microaggressions, and Campus Racial Climate for Latina/o Undergraduates’, Harvard Educational Review, 79, 4, 2009, 659-690.
Volume II: Whiteness and White Supremacy
Introduction to Volume II by Nicola Rollock
1. Theoretical Insights and Perspectives
- C. Harris, (1993) ‘Whiteness as Property’, in K. Crenshaw, N. Gotanda, G. Peller & K. Thomas (eds), Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement (New York: New Press, 1995), pp. 276-291. Originally published in Harvard Law Review, 106, 8, 1993, 1707-1791.
- Z. Leonardo, ‘The Color of Supremacy: Beyond the Discourse of "White Privilege"’. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 36, 2, 2004, 137–152.
- R. Allen, ‘Whiteness and Critical Pedagogy’, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 36, 2, 2004, 121-136
- S.M. Wildman with A.D. Davis, ‘Making Systems of Privilege Visible’, in R. Delgado & J. Stefancic (eds), Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror (Philadelphia, USA: Temple University Press, 1997)
- R. DiAngelo, ‘White Fragility’, International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 3, 3, 2011, 54-70.
2. Consequences and Impact of Whiteness and White Supremacy
- V. Harpalani, ‘Ambiguity, Ambivalence, and Awakening: A South Asian Becoming Aware of Race in America’, Berkeley Journal of African-American Law & Policy, 11, 1, 2013, 71-83.
- Z. Leonardo & R. K. Porter, ‘Pedagogy of Fear: Toward a Fanonian Theory of "Safety" in Race Dialogue', Race Ethnicity & Education, 13, 2, 2010, 139-157.
- N. Rollock, ‘Letter to my Unborn Daughter, My Career in the Academy – Reasons for My Mental Breakdown’, in G. Ladson-Billings & W. Tate (eds), Covenant Keeper: Derrick Bell’s Enduring Education Legacy (New York: Peter Lang, 2016).
- W. Smith, T. J. Yosso & D.G. Solorzano ‘Challenging Racial Battle Fatigue on Historically White Campuses: A Critical Examination of Race Related Stress’, in C. A. Stanley (ed.), Faculty of Color: Teaching in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities (Boston, MA: Anker Publishing Company, 2006).
- B. Picower, ‘The Unexamined Whiteness of Teaching: How White Teachers Maintain and Enact Dominant Racial Ideologies’, Race Ethnicity & Education 12, 2, 2009, 197–215.
3. Education Practice and Policy
- B. Applebaum, ‘In the Name of Morality: Moral Responsibility, Whiteness and Social Justice Education’, Journal of Moral Education, 34, 3, 2005, 277-290.
- T. Chapman, ‘You Can't Erase Race! Using CRT to Explain the Presence of Race and Racism in Majority White Suburban Schools’, Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34, 4, 2013, 611-627.
- D. Gillborn, ‘Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform’, Journal of Educational Policy, 20, 4, 2005, 485-505.
4. Whiteness and White Supremacy: Intersectional Considerations
- A. Moreton-Robinson, ‘The White Man’s Burden’, Australian Feminist Studies, 26, 70, 2011, 413-431.
- N. Cabrera, ‘When Racism and Masculinity Collide: Some Methodological Considerations from a Man of Colour’, Whiteness & Education, 1, 1, 2016, 15-25.
- C, Levine-Rasky, ‘Intersectionality Theory Applied to Whiteness and Middle-classness’, Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture, 17, 2, 2011, 239-253.
- P. McIntosh, ‘White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women’s Studies’, in R. Delgado & J. Stefancic (eds.), Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror (Philadelphia, USA: Temple University Press, 1997).
- T. J. Lensmire, S. K. Mcmanimon, J. Dockter Tierney, M. E. Lee-Nichols, Z. A. Casey, A. Lensmire & B. M. Davis, ‘McIntosh as Synecdoche: How Teacher Education’s Focus on White Privilege Undermines Antiracism’, Harvard Educational Review, 83, 3, 2013, 410-431.
5. Deconstructing Whiteness: Solidarity, White Allies and Race Traitors
- C. Sleeter, ‘Becoming White: Reinterpreting a Family Story by Putting Race Back in the Picture’, Race Ethnicity & Education, 14, 4, 2011, 421-433.
- A.A. Bergerson, ‘Critical Race Theory and White Racism: Is There Room for White Scholars in Fighting Racism in Education?’, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 16, 1, 2003, 51–63.
- S. Marx, ‘Regarding Whiteness: Exploring and Intervening in the Effects of White Racism in Teacher Education’, Equity & Excellence in Education, 37, 1, 2010, 31-43.
- J. Preston & C. Chadderton, ‘Rediscovering "Race Traitor": Towards a Critical Race Theory Informed Public Pedagogy’, Race Ethnicity & Education, 15, 1, 2012, 85-100.
Volume III: Off-Shoot Movements
Introduction to Volume III by Paul Warmington
1. CRT and LatCrit Theory
- A. T. Revilla, ‘Latcrit and CRT in the Field of Education: A Theoretical Dialogue between Two Colleagues’, Denver University Law Review, 78, 4, 2000, 623-632.
- L. P. Huber, ‘Disrupting Apartheid of Knowledge: Testimonio as Methodology in Latina/o Critical Race Research in Education’, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 22, 6, 2009, 639-654.
- E. Aléman, & S. Aléman, ‘Do Latin@ Interests Always have to "Converge" with White Interests?’: (Re)claiming Racial Realism and Interest- Convergence in Critical Race Theory Praxis’, Race Ethnicity & Education, 13, 1, 2010, 1-21.
- B. Dávila, ‘Critical Race Theory, Disability Microaggressions and Latina/o Student Experiences in Special Education’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 18, 4, 2015, 443-468.
2. DisCrit: Dis/Ability Critical Race Theory
- G. Beratan, ‘The Song Remains the Same: Transposition and the Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Special Education’, Race Ethnicity & Education, 11, 4, 2008, 337-354.
- F. Campbell, ‘Exploring Internalized Ableism Using Critical Race Theory’, Disability & Society, 23, 2, 2008, 151-162.
- N. Erevelles & A. Minear, ‘Unspeakable Offenses: Untangling Race and Disability in Discourses of Intersectionality’, Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, 4, 2, 2010, 127-145.
- S. A. Annamma, D. Connor and B. Ferri, ‘Dis/ability Critical Race Studies (DisCrit): Theorizing at the Intersections of Race and Dis/ability’, Race Ethnicity & Education, 16, 1, 2013, 1-31.
3. QueerCrit: Identities, Race and Queer Theories
- L. Loutzenheiser, ‘Ruminations on Stuck Places: Identities, Race, and Queer Theories’, Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, 4, 2, 2007, 100-106.
- E. Anderson & M. McCormack, ‘Intersectionality, Critical Race Theory, and American Sporting Oppression: Examining Black and Gay Male Athletes’, Journal of Homosexuality, 57, 8, 2010, 949-967.
- S. Pennell, ‘Queer Cultural Capital: Implications for Education’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 19, 2, 2015, 324-338.
- C. Han, ‘No Fats, Femmes, or Asians: The Utility of Critical Race Theory in Examining the Role of Gay Stock Stories in the Marginalization of Gay Asian Men’, Contemporary Justice Review, 11, 1, 2008, 11-22.
4. CRT and Asian American Education
- A. Liu, ‘Critical Race Theory, Asian Americans, and Higher Education: A Review of Research’, InterActions: UCLA Journal of Education and Information Studies, 5, 2, 2009, 1-12.
- R. Teranishi, ‘Asian Pacific Americans and Critical Race Theory: An Examination of School Racial Climate’, Equity & Excellence in Education, 35, 2, 2010, 144-154.
- T. Buenavista, ‘Model (Undocumented) Minorities and "Illegal" Immigrants: Centering Asian Americans and US Carcerality in Undocumented Student Discourse’, Race, Ethnicity & Education (online, Oct 2016).
- L. Kolano, ‘Smartness as Cultural Wealth: An AsianCrit Counterstory’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 19, 6, 2016, 1149-1163
- C. DePouw, ‘When Culture Implies Deficit: Placing Race at the Center of Hmong American Education’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 15, 2, 2012, 223-239.
5. Global and Specific: New Directions, New Offshoots
- A. Castagno & S. Lee, ‘Native Mascots and Ethnic Fraud in Higher Education: Using Tribal Critical Race Theory and the Interest Convergence Principle as an Analytic Tool’, Equity & Excellence in Education, 40, 1, 2007, 3-13.
- J. McLaughlin & S. Whatman, ‘The Potential of Critical Race Theory in Decolonizing University Curricula’, Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 31, 4, 2011, 365-377.
- M. Ford, ‘Achievement Gaps in Australia: What NAPLAN Reveals About Education Inequality in Australia’, Race Ethnicity & Education, 16, 1, 2013, 80-102.
- K. Kitching, ‘How the Irish became CRT’d? "Greening" Critical Race Theory, and the Pitfalls of a Normative Atlantic State View’, Race, Ethnicity & Education, 18, 2, 2015, 163-182.
- G. Vass, ‘Putting Critical Race Theory to Work in Australian Education Research: "We Are with the Garden Hose Here"’, Australian Educational Researcher, 42, 3, 2015, 371-394.
Volume IV: CRT Methods and Epistemology
Introduction to Volume IV by Laurence J. Parker
1. Foundational Works in CRT Law & Education
- R. Delgado, ‘Storytelling for Oppositionists and Others: A Plea for Narrative’, Michigan Law Review, 87, 8, 1989, 2411-2441.
- D. Delgado Bernal, ‘Using a Chicana Feminist Epistemology in Educational Research’, Harvard Educational Review, 68, 4, 1998, 555-582.
- L. Parker & M. Lynn, ‘What’s Race Got to Do with It? Critical Race Theory’s Conflicts and Connections to Qualitative Research Methodology and Epistemology’, Qualitative Inquiry, 8, 1, 2002, 7-22.
- D. G. Solórzano & T. J. Yosso, ‘Critical Race and LatCrit Theory and Method: Counterstorytelling’, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 14, 4, 2001, 471-495.
2. 2nd Generation Works: CRT, Methodology and Applied CRT Methodology
- I. Perry, ‘Cultural Studies, Critical Race Theory and Some Reflection on Methods’, Villanova Law Review, 50, 4, 2015, 915-925.
- M. C. Malagon, L. Perez Huber & V. Velez, ‘Our Experiences, Our Methods: Using Grounded Theory to Inform a Critical Race Methodology’, Seattle Journal for Social Justice, 8, 1, 2012, 253-272.
- Y. Sealy-Ruiz, ‘Learning to Resist: Educational Counter-narratives of Black College Re-entry Mothers’, Teachers College Record, 115, 4, 2013, 1-31.
- K. Hylton, ‘Talk the Talk, Walk the Walk: Defining Critical Race Theory in Research’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 15, 1, 2012, 23-41.
- T. J. Yosso. ‘Whose Culture has Capital?: A Critical Race Theory Discussion of Community Cultural Wealth’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 8, 1, 2005, 69-91.
- Y.V. Lapayese, ‘Understanding and Undermining the Racio-economic Agenda of NCLB Using Critical Race Methodology to Investigate the Labor of Bilingual Teachers’, Race Ethnicity & Education, 10, 3, 2007, 309-321.
- C. B. Knaus, ‘Shut Up and Listen: Applied Critical Race Theory in the Classroom’, Race Ethnicity & Education, 12, 2, 2009, 133-154.
- R. R. Dow, ‘Racing Stories: Digital Storytelling as a Tool for Critical Race Scholarship’, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 14, 2, 2011, 159-173.
- D. Gillborn, ‘The Colour of Numbers: Surveys, Statistics and Deficit-thinking About Race and Class’, Journal of Education Policy, 25, 2, 2010, 253-276.
3. 3rd Generation Work: Qualitative Story-Telling, Counternarratives and Quantitative/Descriptive Data on Racism
- D. A. Cook & A. D. Dixson, ‘Writing Critical Race Theory and Method: A Composite Counterstory on the Experiences of Black Teachers in New Orleans Post-Katrina’, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 26, 10, 2013, 1238-1258,
- L. Song Richardson, ‘Police Racial Violence: Lesson from Social Psychology’, Fordham Law Review, 83, 6, 2015, 2961-2976.
- M. L. Barnes, ‘Empirical Methods and Critical Race Theory: A Discourse on Possibilities for a Hybrid’, Wisconsin Law Review, 2016, 3, 2016, 443-476.
- L. Perez-Huber & D. Solόrzano, ‘Racial Microaggressions as a Tool for Critical Race Research’, Race Ethnicity & Education, 18, 2015, 297-320.
- W. A. Smith, M. Hung & J. D. Franklin, ‘Racial Battle Fatigue and the Miseducation of Black Men: Racial Microaggressions, Societal Problems and Environmental Stress’, Journal of Negro Education, 80, 1, 2011 63-82.