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Corpus Annotation gives an up-to-date picture of this fascinating new area of research, and will provide essential reading for newcomers to the field as well as those already involved in corpus annotation. Early chapters introduce the different levels and techniques of corpus annotation. Later chapters deal with software developments, applications, and the development of standards for the evaluation of corpus annotation. While the book takes detailed account of research world-wide, its focus is particularly on the work of the UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language) team at Lancaster University, which has been at the forefront of developments in the field of corpus annotation since its beginnings in the 1970s.
Table of Contents
List of contributors Preface 1. Introducing corpus annotation Geoffrey Leech 2. Grammatical tagging Geoffrey Leech 3. Syntactic annotation: treebanks Geoffrey Leech and Elizabeth Eyes 4. Semantic annotation Andrew Wilson and Jenny Thomas 5. Discourse annotation: anaphoric relations in corpora Roger Garside, Steve Fligelstone and Simon Botley 6. Further levels of annotation Geoffrey Leech, Anthony McEnery and Martin Wynne 7. A hybrid grammatical tagger: CLAWS4 Roger Garside and Nicholas Smith 8. How to generalise the task of annotation Steve Fligelstone, Mike Pacey and Paul Rayson 9. Improving a tagger Nicholas Smith 10. Retageting a tagger Fernando Sánchez León and Amalio F.Nieto-Serrano 11. The use of syntactic annotation tools: partial and full parsing Jeremy Bateman, Jean Forrest, and Tim Willis 12. Higher-level annotation tools Roger Garside and Paul Rayson 13. A corpus/annotation toolbox Anthony McEnery and Paul Rayson 14. A corpus-based grammar tool Anthony McEnery, John Paul Baker and John Hutchinson 15. The exploitation of multilingual annotated corpora for term extraction Anthony McEnery, Jean-Marc Langé, Michael Oakes and Jean Véronis 16. Cross-linguistic guidelines for the annotation of corpora Peter Kahrel, Ruthanna Barnett and Geoffrey Leech 17. Consistency and accuracy in correcting automatically-tagged corpora John Paul Baker
Appendix I: Sources for further information (WWW and e-mail addresses) Appendix II: Abbreviations and acronyms Appendix III: Specimen annotation practices: the C7 and C5 tagsets Bibliography Index
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