Both practical and theoretical, this book provides the basic principles of soil chemistry, hydrology, wetland ecology, microbiology, vegetation and wildlife as a sound introduction to this innovative technology to treat toxic wastewaters and sludges. The use of wetlands for acid mine drainage, and metals removal in municipal, urban runoff, and industrial systems is discussed. Case histories are also presented, demonstrating specific types of constructed wetlands and applications to municipal wastewater, home sites, coal and non-coal mining, coal-fired electric power plants, chemical and pulp industry, agriculture, landfill leachate, and urban stormwater. Construction and management guidelines are clearly explained, providing information on applicable policies and regulations, siting and construction, and operations and monitoring of constructed wetlands treatment systems. Recent theoretical and empirical results from operating systems and research facilities, including such new applications as nutrient removal from eutrophic lakes and urban stormwater treatment within highway rights-of-way, are included. This book is an ideal resource for wastewater treatment plants, consulting engineers, federal and state regulators, industrial environmental managers, municipalities, environmental health professionals, and ecologists.
Table of Contents
General Principles: Wastewaters: A Perspective (A.J. Smith). Wetlands Ecosystems: Natural Water Purifiers? (D.A. Hammer and R.K. Bastian). Hydrologic Factors in Wetland Water Treatment (R.H. Kadlec). Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Freshwater Wetland Soils (S.P. Faulkner and C.J. Richardson). Wetland Vegetation (G.R. Guntenspergen, F. Stearns, and J.A. Kadlec). Wetlands Microbiology: Form, Function, Processes (R.J. Portier and S.J. Palmer). Wetlands: The Lifeblood of Wildlife (J.S. Feierabend). Case Histories: Constructed Free Surface Wetlands to Treat and Receive Wastewater: Pilot Project to Full Scale (R.A. Gearheart, F. Klopp, and G. Allen). The Iselin Marsh Pond Meadow (T.E. Conway and J.M. Murtha). Integrated Wastewater Treatment Using Artificial Wetlands: A Gravel Marsh Case Study (R.M. Gersberg, S.R. Lyon, R. Brenner, and B.V. Elkins). Sewage Treatment by Reed Bed Systems: The Present Situation in the United Kingdom (P.F. Cooper and J.A. Hobson). Aquatic Plant/Microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent (B.C. Wolverton). Creation and Management of Wetlands Using Municipal Wastewater in Northern Arizona: A Status Report (M. Wilhelm, S.R. Lawry, and D.D. Hardy). Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater on Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge for Wetland/Crane Habitat Enhancement: A Status Report (J.W. Hardy). Waste Treatment for Confined Swine with an Integrated Artificial Wetland and Aquaculture System (J.J. Maddox and J.B. Kingsley). Treatment of Acid Drainage with a Constructed Wetland at the Tennessee Valley Authority 950 Coal Mine (G.A. Brodie, D.A. Hammer, and D.A. Tomljanovich). Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Ash Pond Seepage (G.A. Brodie, D.A. Hammer, and D.A. Tomljanovich). Use of Wetlands for Treatment of Environmental Problems in Mining: Non-Coal-Mining Applications (T.R. Wildeman nad L.S. Laudon). Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment at Amoco Oil Company's Mandan, North Dakota Refinery (D.K. Litchfield and D.D. Schatz). Utilization of Artificial Marshes for Treatment of Pulp Mill Effluents (R.N. Thut). Use of Artificial Wetlands for Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Leachate (N.M. Trautmann, J.H. Martin, Jr., K.S. Porter, and K.C. Hawk, Jr.). Use of Wetlands for Urban Stormwater Management (E.H. Livingston). Design, Construction and Operation: Use of Wetlands for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Disposal-Regulatory Issues and EPA Policies (R.K. Bastian, P.E. Shanaghan, and B.P. Thompson). States' Activities, Attitudes and Policies Concerning Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment (R.L. Slayden, Jr. nad L.N. Schwartz). Human Perception of Utilization of Wetlands for Waste Assimilation, or How Do You Make A Silk Purse Out of A Sow's Ear? (R.C. Smardon). Preliminary Considerations Regarding Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment (R.K. Wieder, G. Tchobanoglous, nad R.W. Tuttle). Selection and Evaluation of Sites for Constructed Wastewater Treatment Wetlands (G.A. Brodie). Performance Expectations and Loading Rates for Constructed Wetlands (J.T. Watson, S.C. Reed, R.H. kadlec, R.L. Knight, and A.E. Whitehouse). Ancillary benefits of Wetlands Constructed Primarily for Wastewater Treatment (J.H. Sather). Overview from Ducks Unlimited, Inc. (R.D. Hoffman). Configuration and Substrate Design Considerations for Constructed Wetlands Wastewater Treatment (G.R. Steiner and R.J. Freeman, Jr.). Hydraulic Design Considerations and Control Structures for Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment (J.T. Watson and J.A. Hobson). California's Experience with Mosquitos in Aquatic Wastewater Treatment Systems (C.V. Martin and B.F. Eldridge). Constructing the Wastewater Treatment Wetland - Some Factors to Consider (D.A. Tomljanovich and O. Perez). Considerations and Techniques for Vegetation Establishment in Constructed Wetlands (H.H. Allen, G.J. Pierce, and R. Van Wormer). Operations Optimization (M.A. Girts and R.L. Knight). Pathogen Removal in Constructed Wetlands (R.M. Gersberg, R.A. Gearheart, and M. Ives). Monitoring of Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater (D.B. Hicks and Q.J. Stober). Recent Results from the Field and Laboratory: Dynamics of Inorganic and Organic Materials in Wetlands Ecosystems (R.H. Kadlec, W. Grosse, R.L. Davido, T.E. Conway, R. Schultz-Hock, Y.-P. Hsieh, and C.L. Coultas). Efficiencies of Substrates, Vegetation, Water Levels and Microbial Populations (S.C. Michaud, C.J. Richardson, R.S. Hedin, R. Hammack, D. Hyman, R.J. Portier, T.A. DeBusk, P.S. Burgoon, K.R. Reddy, J.B. Kingsley, J.J. Maddox, P.M. Giordano, W. Batal, L.S. Laudon, T.R. Wildeman, and N. Mohdnoordin, and J. Vymazal). Management of Domestic and Municipal Wastewaters (H. Brix, H.-H. Schierup, J. Jackson, A. Wood, L.C. Hensman, K.J. Whalen, P.S. Lombardo, D.B. Wile, T.H. Neel, B.B. james, R. Bogaert, R. Haberl, R. Perfler, T.J. Mingee, R.W. Crites, J.A. Hobson, G. Miller, A.L. Schwartz, R.L. Knight, H.J. Bavor, D.J. Roser, P.J. Fisher, and I.C. Smalls, P.R. Scheuerman, G. Bitton, S.R. Farrah, and C.H. Dill). Treatment of Nonpoint Source Pollutants-Urban Runoff and Agricultural Wastes (G.S. Silverman, E.C. Meiorin, P. Daukas, D. Lowry, W.W. Walker, Jr., L.C. Linker, C.J. Costello, E.F. Lowe, D.L. Stites, and L.E. Battoe). Applications to Industrial and Landfill Wastewaters (M.S. Ailstock, V.G. Guida, I.J. Kugelman, W.W. Staubitz, J.M. Surface, T.S. Steenhuis, J.H. Peverly, M.J. LAvine, N.C. Weeks, W.E. Sanford, R.J. Kopka, and J.N. Dornbush). Control of Acid Mine Drainage Including Coal Pile and Ash Pond Seepage (M. Silver, E.A. Howard, J.C. Emerick, T.R. Wildeman, S.E. Stevens, Jr., K. Dionis, L.R. Stark, E.A. Howard, M.C. Hestmark, and T.D. Margulies, P. Eger, K. Lapakko, R.L. Kolbash, T.L. Tomanoski, J. Henrot, R.K. Wieder, K.P. Heston, M.P. Nardi, W.R. Wenerick, S.E. Stevens, Jr., H.J. Webster, L.R. stark, E. DeVeau, E.L. Snoddy, G.A. Brodie, D.A. Hammer, and D.A. Tomljanovich). Index.