Safe drinking water and effluent have long been dependent on the large-scale use of chlorine. Process Safety Management (PSM) and the Risk Management Program (RMP), safety regulations now enforced by OSHA and EPA are leading to serious reconsideration of chlorination as the preferred disinfection method. Renewed concern about the safety of chlorination by-products is also driving water and wastewater specialists and plant personnel to consider alternatives to traditional chlorine application. Choosing Disinfection Alternatives for Water/Wastewater Treatment is a practical explanation of all available disinfection technologies in light of management criteria: legal compliance, plant safety, effuent quality, and cost. This text is designed for all who must understand and act on the challenge of finding safe and equally effective methods of wastwater and water disinfection besides traditional chlorination.
Table of Contents
Disinfecting Water/Wastewater: What's It All About
Pump Handle Removal-to Disinfection * Role of Disinfectants * Choosing the Disinfection Alternative * Example 1.1 * Example 1.2 * The Bottom Line * Disinfection Alternatives: What Is the Answer? * Cited References * Suggested Reading
Introduction * Elemental Chlorine (Cl2): Some Basic Points * Cited References
Setting the Stage * The Pluses/Minuses (the Good, Bad and the Ugly) of Hypochlorite * Sodium Hypochlorite System * Sodium Hypochlorite: Safety Considerations * Sodium Hypochlorite: Other Considerations * Sodium Hypochlorite: Matrix * Cited References * Suggested Reading
Chloramination: A Meeting of the Minds * Chloramination: The Discussion * Chloramination: The Bottom Line * Cited Reference
The Chlorine Dioxide Alternative: An Easy Decision * Chlorine Dioxide: The Facts * Chlorine Dioxide: The Discussion * Chlorine Dioxide: The Bottom Line * Cited References
Morning Prelude * Bromine Chloride: Pertinent Facts * Bromine Chloride: The Discussion * Bromine Chloride: The Bottom Line * Cited References
Potassium Permanganate: Quick Work * Potassium Permanganate: Going Through the Motions * Potassium Permanganate: Pertinent Facts * Potassium Permanganate: The Discussion * On The Treadmill * Cited References
Ozone: Prelude * Ozone: Background Information * Ozone: Just the Facts, Ma'am * Ozone: The Facts * Ozonation System * Ozone: Process Flow Scheme * Ozone: Safety Considerations * Ozone: The Discussion * Ozone: The Bottom Line
Let's Shed Some Light on the Subject * Early Start * UV: Background Information * UV: Discussion * At the Crossroads * UV Screening Criteria * The Bottom Line * Cited References
Rachel's Creek: The Alternative Selected
Forging a Decision * Stating the Case
"...the ext contains a lot of practical, experience-based data that undoubtedly will serve anyone having to make a decision about the design or modification of a water or wastewater treatment plant."
-International Journal of Environment and Pollution, vol. 15, no. 5, 2001