Chemical Kinetics and Process Dynamics in Aquatic Systems is devoted to chemical reactions and biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems. The book provides a thorough analysis of the principles, mathematics, and analytical tools used in chemical, microbial, and reactor kinetics. It also presents a comprehensive, up-to-date description of the kinetics of important chemical processes in aquatic environments. Aquatic photochemistry and correlation methods (e.g., LFERs and QSARs) to predict process rates are covered. Numerous examples are included, and each chapter has a detailed bibliography and problems sets. The book will be an excellent text/reference for professionals and students in such fields as aquatic chemistry, limnology, aqueous geochemistry, microbial ecology, marine science, environmental and water resources engineering, and geochemistry.
Table of Contents
Overview: Introduction. Natural Waters as Nonequalibrium Systems. Scope of This Book. Rate Expressions for Chemical Reactions: Introduction. Rate Equations for Elementary Reactions. Rate Equations for More Complicated Reactions. Determination of Rate Equations and Rate Parameters from Experimental Data. Relationships between Rate Equations and Reaction Mechanisms. Experimental Aspects of Kinetic Studies. Theoretical Aspects of Kinetics and Effects of Physical Conditions on Reaction Rates: Introduction. The Arrhenquation and Related Temperature Relationships. Properties of Water and Reactants in Aqueous Solution. Encounter Theory for Reactions in Solution. Transition State/Activated Complex theory. Effects of Pressure on Rates of Reactions in Solution. Effects of Ionic Strength on Reaction Rates. Ranges of Values for Kinetic Parameters: Summary and perspective . Kinetics of Chemical Reactions in Aquatic Systems: From Homogeneous Catalysis to Reactions at Interfaces: Homogeneous Catalysis. Introduction. Types and Mechanisms of Homogeneous Catalysis. Rate Equations for Catalyzed Reactions. Kinetics of Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution: Kinetics of Dissociation and Hydrolysis Reactions in Natural Waters. Kinetics of Chlorination Reactions. Inorganic Redox Reactions. Processes at Interfaces. Gas Transfer Kinetics. Mineral Dissolution and Formation. Reactors, Mass Transport, and Process Models: Reactor Theory. Fundamentals of Chemical Reactors. Principles of Mass Balance Analysis. Comparative Behavior of CFSTRs and PFRs. Applications of Reactor Models to Natural Aquatic Systems. Equilibrium versus Kinetic Models for Open Systems. Nutrient Models. Models of Organic Contaminant Transport and Fate. CFSTR Models for Sulfate and Alkalinity on Lakes. Kinetics of Multi-Compartment Systems. Nature of Multi-Compartment Systems. Analysis of Compartment Models by Matrix Methods. The Inverse Problem. Kinetics of Biochemical Reactions and Microbial Processes in Natural Waters. Biochemical Kinetics: Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions. Reactions Involving a Single Substrate. Multisubstrate Reactions. Enzyme Inhibition. Theoretical Aspects of Enzyme Catalysis. Kinetics of Microbial Processes. Kinetics of Nutrient-Limited Microbial Growth. Continuous Culture of Microorganisms. Effects of Temperature on Microbial Processes. Kinetic Models of Heterotrophic Growth in Aquatic Systems. Kinetic Models for Autotrophic Growth and Nutrient Uptake. Diffusion-Limited Transport and Growth. Microbial Dieoff and Disinfection Kinetics. Prediction Methods for Reaction Rates and Compound Reactivity. Linear Free energy Relationships. Introduction. The Bronsted Relationship. Sigma Relationships for Organic Substituent Effects. LFERs for Redox Reactions. Applications of LFERs to Reactions in Natural Waters. Property-Activity and Structure-Activity Relationships in Environmental Biology and Chemistry. Nature and Importance of PARs and SARs. Physical-Chemical Measures of Compound Availability and Transportability. Linear Solvation Energy Relationships. A Simple Property-Activity Model for Biological Systems. Property-Activity Relationships for Aquatic Organisms. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships. Use of Statistical Techniques to Develop and Analyze PARs and SARs. Summary. Photochemical Reactions in Natural Waters: Introduction. Kinetics of Photochemical Reactions. Inorganic Photochemistry of Natural Waters. Nature and Photochemistry of Natural DOM. Photochemistry of Organic Contaminants in Natural Waters. Photochemistry on Suspended Oxide Particles. References. Index.