This excellent book describes the roles of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus as a regulatory center of homeostatic mechanism and a circadian oscillator in mammals, including humans. The authors emphasize two important points based on their findings: 1) SCN plays a critical role in central regulation of energy metabolism through which a constant supply of glucose to the central nervous system (CNS) is well maintained; and 2) neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism are located in the ventrolateral part of the SCN and receive retinal neural inputs through both the retinohypothalamic tract and the geniculohypothalamic tract. The authors then discuss the evolutionary importance of these points to the survival of mammals on earth. Other topics examined include the involvement of light in the regulation of neural activity of the autonomic nervous system through the retina and SCN, in addition to the relation of the SCN with regulations of other autonomic nerve functions, such as blood pressure and body temperature.
Central Regulation of Energy Metabolism with Special Reference to Circadian Rhythm is important reading for researchers and students in neuroendocrinologists, neurobiologists, biochemists, endocrinologists, physiologists, chronobiologists, psychologists, pharmacologists, and others interested in the topic.
Table of Contents
Preface. HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL OF ENERGY METABOLISM. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF "HOMEOSTASIS". HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL OF ENERGY METABOLISM. Why Should Homeostasis of the Level of Blood Glucose be Maintained? Glycogen Storage in the Liver as a Source of Energy to the Brain. Food Intake. Gluconeogenesis. ROLE OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS IN CENTRAL REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM. Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake. Hypothalamus and Glucose Metabolism. Hypothalamic Control of Fat Metabolism. Hypothalamic Control of Heat Production in Brown Adipose Tissue. Functional Relationship between the Hypothalamus and the Autonomic Nervous System in Regard to Energy Metabolism. INVOLVEMENT OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM. TIME-DEPENDENT HYPERGLYCEMIC RESPONSE TO ENERGY DEFICIENCY IN THE BRAIN. Hyperglycemic Responses to Intracranial Injections of 2DG. Time Dependency of Hyperglycemic Responses to 2DG, MA, and GL Injections. Glucagon as a Causative Factor for the Hyperglycemic Response to 2DG. INVOLVEMENT OF THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN THE HYPERGLYCEMIC RESPONSE. Suppression of Insulin Secretion by Intracranial Injections of 2DG, MA, and GL. EFFECTS OF ADRENERGIC BLOCKERS ON THE HYPERGLYCEMIC RESPONSE. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCES IN SURVIVIAL OF ANIMALS. TIME DEPENDENCY AND CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The Effects of Changing Environmental Factors on the Lives of Animals. Food Intake. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIORS. Water Intake. Sleep and Wakefulness. Locomotive Activity. DAILY CHANGES IN METABOLISM. Energy Consumption and Respiratory Quotient. Enzyme Activities. Autonomic and Endocrinological Regulations of Energy Metabolism. The Autonomic Nervous System and Daily Changes in PEPCK Activity in a Normal Environment. Generation of Daily Change in Gluconeogenesis in Close Relation with Food Intake. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS OF ENDOCRINE FUNCTIONS. Corticosteroids. Insulin and Glucagon. BODY TEMPERATURE. SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS AS A SITE OF THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK. LIGHT INFORMATION PATHWAY TO THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK. Involvement of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus in Generations of Various Circadian Rhythms. Anatomy of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus. SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS AS A MASTER CIRCADIAN CLOCK. Electrolytical and Immunological Lesions of the SCN. SCN as a Self-Sustaining Circadian Oscillator. Number of Oscillators Driving Circadian Rhythms. SYNCHRONIZATION MECHANISMS OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. Synchronization by Light-Dark Information. Artificial Synchronization. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE TIME SIGNAL FROM THE SCN AND OVERT CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. CIRCADIAN CLOCK AND TEMPORAL MEMORY. THE POSSIBILITY OF THE PRESENCE OF OTHER CIRCADIAN CLOCKS. THE ROLE OF THE SCN IN REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM. ROLES OF THE SCN IN CENTRAL ACTION OF 2-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE. Elimination of Hyperglycemic Response to 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose by SCN Lesions. SCN and Insulin Secretion. SCN and Glucagon Secretion. SCN and Lipolytic and Feeding Responses to 2DG. ROLES OF THE SCN IN CENTRAL ACTIONS OF INSULIN. Effect of Insulin Infusion on Feeding Behavior. Effect of Intracranial Administration of Insulin on Blood Glucose Concentration. Effects of SCN Lesions on Responses to Intracranial Administration of Insulin. TIME-DEPENDENT CONTROL OF GLUCOSE TOLERANCE. Daily Variations of Blood Concentrations of Glucose, FFA, Insulin, and Glucagon. Glucose Tolerance. Endogenous Mechanism of Daily Change of Blood Insulin Level. SIMILARITIES BETWEEN BLINDING AND SCN LESIONS IN ENERGY METABOLISM. Hyperglycemia Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of the SCN. Effects of Surgical Blinding on Time-Dependent Hyperglycemic Response to 2DG. Effect of Blinding on Hyperglycemia Due to Electrical Stimulation of the SCN. Effects of SCN Lesions and Blinding on Hyperglycemia Due to Stimulation of Other Brain Areas. PATHOLOGY OF THE SCN. ABNORMAL ENERGY METABOLISM IN HEREDITARY MICROPHTHALMIC BLIND RATS. Absence of Hyperglycemic Response to 2DG. Putative Neurons in the SCN Responsible for Central Regulation of Energy Metabolism. Synchronization of Pup's Rhythm with Real vs. Foster Mother. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE SCN IN SURGICAL AND CONGENITAL BLIND RATS. Involvement of SCN Neurons Receiving Retinal Input in Central Regulation of Energy Metabolism. Positional Plasticity of VIP Neurons. Growth Factors Sustaining SCN Functions. OBESITY AS A RESULT OF ABNORMAL FUNCTION OF THE SCN. OTHER FUNCTIONS OF THE SCN. MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION. THE SCN AS A RELAY POINT OF LIGHT INFORMATION FOR ALTERATION OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. MISCELLANEOUS POSSIBLE FUNCTIONS OF THE SCN. SUMMARY OF FUNCTIONS OF THE SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS IN REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM. METABOLIC FUNCTIONS OF THE SCN. Possible Neural Pathways. Carbohydrate Metabolism. Lipid Metabolism. Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism. RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION. NEURAL ACTIVITY OF THE SCN AND CIRCADIAN CHANGES IN METABOLISM. MECHANISM OF INVOLVEMENT OF THE SCN IN METABOLIC REGULATION. Circadian Regulation. NonCircadian Regulation. Aging and the SCN. CONCLUSION.