The most comprehensive compendium of information available on calcium channels
Calcium channels are a common component of the membranes of a wide range of excitable cells, and their presence is crucial to the functioning of these cells. This book presents a current review of the biophysics, physiology, pharmacology, and clinical role of calcium channels. Chapters discussing the biophysics of calcium channels include topics in ion permeation, channel activation, channel inactivation, and second messenger modulation. The chapters on physiology cover excitation-contraction coupling, excitation-secretion coupling, sensory transduction, regulation of electrical activity, and the regulation of cell growth and development. Issues discussed in the pharmacology chapters of the book include the effects of permeant and inhibitory inorganic ions, blocking and activating effects of organic ions, and the regulatory effects of naturally occurring compounds. The chapters exploring the clinical aspects of calcium channels examine topics such as the modulation of calcium channels in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, peripheral vascular diseases, platelet-related disorders, neurological disorders, and psychiatric disorders. Physicians neuroscientists, and pharmacologists should consider this book essential to their reference collections.
Table of Contents
BIOPHYSICS OF CALCIUM CHANNELS. BIOPHYSICS OF CALCIUM CHANNELS: AN OVERVIEW. CALCIUM CHANNEL PERMEABILITY AND IONIC BLOCK. Introduction. Divalent Permeant and Blocking Ions. An Apparent Paradox. Block by Mg. Mg Blockage of Currents Carried by Monovalents Ions Through Calcium Channels. Ca++ Block of Sodium Currents Through LVA Calcium Channels. Voltage Dependent Block. Conclusions. ACTIVATION AND DEACTIVATION OF NEURONAL HIGH VOLTAGE ACTIVATED, FAST DEACTIVATING CALCIUM CHANNELS. Introduction. Activation Kinetics of HVA Calcium Channel Currents. Are Calcium Channels Occupied by Ions When Gated? Models for Activation. Modulation of Calcium Channel Activation. Conclusions and Perspectives. CALCIUM CHANNEL INACTIVATION. Introduction. Ion Channel Inactivation. Mechanisms of Calcium Channel Inactivation. Modulation of Calcium Channel Inactivation. Summary and Conclusions. THE PHYSIOLOGY OF CALCIUM CHANNELS. THE PHYSIOLOGY OF CALCIUM CHANNELS: AN OVERVIEW. CALCIUM CHANNELS IN EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING. Introduction. Skeletal Muscle. Cardiac Muscle. Vascular Smooth Muscle. Summary. CALCIUM CHANNELS AS TRIGGERS OF SECRETION. A General Overview of Cellular Secretion. Sources of Trigger Ca++. Influx of Ca++ Through Voltage Gated Channels as a Trigger for Exocytosis. Conclusions. CALCIUM CHANNELS IN SENSORY TRANSDUCTION: A CASE STUDY IN PHOTORECEPTORS. Introduction. Physiology of Transduction in Vertebrate Photoreceptors. Gain and Kinetics of Phototransduction. Molecular Mechanisms of Phototransduction. Control of the Gain and Kinetics of Phototransduction. Regulation of Cytoplasmic Free Ca++ Concentration in the Rod Outer Segment. Properties of Ca++ Permeable Ion Channels of the Rod Outer Segment Membrane. Signal Processing in Sensory Receptor Cells. Cone Photoreceptors. Conclusion and Perspective. CALCIUM CHANNELS AND PATTERNS OF ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN NEURONS. Introduction. Types of Calcium Channels. Localization of Calcium Channels. Interactions Between Voltage and Transmitter Gated Calcium Channels. Calcium Channels and Burst Firing Patterns. Summary. CALCIUM CHANNELS IN THE REGULATION OF CELL DEVELOPMENT AND CELLULAR INTERACTIONS. Introduction. Calcium Conductances Appear Early in the Differentiation of Neurons and Myocytes. Effects of Ca++ Influx on Differentiation of Myocytes. Ca++ Influx and Neuronal Survival. Ca++ Influx Effects on Neurite Outgrowth. Ca++ Effects on Neurotransmitter Metabolism and Neuronal Receptors. Possible Roles of Ca++ Influx in Cell Interactions. Evidence for the Role of Ca++ in Gene Regulation. Summary. PHARMACOLOGY OF CALCIUM CHANNELS. THE MANNER IN WHICH DRUGS MAY AFFECT THE FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR OF CALCIUM CHANNELS: AN OVERVIEW. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC IONS ON CALCIUM CHANNELS. Introduction. Dependence of Calcium Channel Structural Integrity on Inorganic and Organic Ions. Inorganic Cations and Calcium Channels. Summary. DRUGS ACTING ON CALCIUM CHANNELS. Introduction. Structure Activity Relationships. Sites of Action. Modes and Selectivity of Action. Effects of Calcium Channel Ligands in Animal Models. Endogenous Substances Acting on Calcium Channel Ligand Receptors. Chronic Regulation of Calcium Channels. Actions at Other Sites. Conclusions and Summary. MODULATION OF CALCIUM CHANNELS BY NEUROTRANSMITTERS, HORMONES, AND SECOND MESSENGERS. Introduction. Modulation of Calcium Channels. Summary. MODULATION OF CALCIUM CHANNELS IN CLINICAL MEDICINE. CALCIUM CHANNELS IN CLINICAL MEDICINE: AN OVERVIEW. MODULATION OF CALCIUM CHANNELS IN THE TREATMENT OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE. Introduction. Mechanisms and Experimental Background. Chronic Stable Effort Angina. Angina Caused by Coronary Spasm: Vasospastic Angina. Silent Ischemic Episodes. Mixed Angina. Angina at Rest. Acute Myocardial Infarction. Reperfusion Injury. Failure of Calcium Antagonists to Benefit Acute Myocardial Infarction. Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty. Summary: Calcium Channel Blockers in Anginal and Ischemic Syndromes. MODULATION OF CALCIUM CHANNELS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CARDIOMYOPATHIES. Introduction. Basic Abnormalities of Myocardial Perfusion in Cardiomyopathies. Calcium Channel Blockers in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Calcium Channel Blockers in Dilated Cardiomyopathies. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathic Syrian Hamster. Distributed Ca++ Metabolism in Cardiomyopathic Hamsters. Assessment of Cardiac Necrosis. Comparative Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers Upon Myopathic Hearts. Competition Between Gallopamil and Adrenergic Agents. Electrophysiological Studies in Isolated Cardiocytes from CM Hamsters. Patch Clamp Studies of Macroscopic Inward Currents by Whole Cell Voltage Clamp Records. Summary and Conclusions. EXPERIENCES WITH CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS IN THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION. Introduction. Types of Calcium Channel Blockers. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. Effects on Renal Function. Metabolic Effects. Efficacy. Combinations With Other Drugs. Importance of the Pre-Treatment Blood Pressure. Acute Administration. Side Effects. Beyond Antihypertensive Effects. CONTROL OF CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS BY MODULATION OF THE SLOW MYOCARDIAL CALCIUM CHANNEL. Introduction. The Role of Calcium Channels in the Genesis of Cardiac Arrhythmias. Electropharmacologic Considerations. Calcium Channel Blockers in Supraventricular Arrhythmias. Ventricular Arrhythmias. Calcium Channel Blockers and Sudden Death. Choice Among Calcium Channel Blockers in Combination With Other Antiarrhythmic Agents. Side Effects, Contraindications and Precautions in the Use of Calcium Channel Blockers as Antiarrhythmic Drugs. Conclusions. THE EFFECTS OF CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS ON PLATELETS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VASCULAR DISEASE. Introduction. Calcium Channel Blockers and Platelets. Calcium Channel Blockers and Blood Vessels. Use of Calcium Channel Blockers in Vascular Diseases. Conclusion. CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Introduction. Normal Ca++ Transport and Metabolism. Pathological Ca++ Accumulation. Calcium Channel Entry Blockers. Conclusions. USE OF CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS IN PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS. Introduction. Psychiatric Patients. Clinical Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers in Psychiatric Patients. Possible Mechanism of Action. Summary and Conclusions.