Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness, and Related Orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium provides the latest scientific information about this group of Orbiviruses, which are transmitted by species of Culicoides (biting midges) and are important causes of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife. Originally presented at the Second International Symposium on the Orbivirus held in Paris, France in June 1991, the book reviews the history and latest data on epizootiology; clinical syndromes and host responses; vector biology, competence, genetics, and capacity; molecular virology and genetics; and diagnostic procedures. The book covers regulatory issues associated with bluetongue, epizootic hemmorrhagic disease, African horse sickness, Ibaraki disease, and equine encephalosis. It also addresses the latest orbiviral diagnostic procedures including ELISA and the polymerase chain reaction; the latest cloning, sequencing, and genetics information of these viruses, and the genetics of oral susceptibility of the vector.
Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness, and Related Orbiviruses: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium is an excellent reference source for researchers in arbovirology, veterinary regulatory officials, foreign animal disease diagnosticians, and veterinary students.
Table of Contents
WELCOME AND OPENING REMARKS. Welcoming Address and Objectives of the 2nd International Symposium on Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness, and Related Orbiviruses. Opening Remarks for the 2nd International Symposium on Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness, and Related Orbiviruses. GLOBAL CHANGE AND ARBOVIRUS DISEASES. Health Implications of Arboviral Diseases Resulting from Global Changes. Effects of Global Warming on Mosquito-Borne Diseases in California. Modelling for Global Changes Affecting Arboviruses. INTERNATIONAL STATUS. An Overview and Perspective on Orbivirus Disease Prevalence and Occurrence of Vectors in Africa. Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in Europe and the European Community. Status of Bluetongue in the Middle East and Asia. Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness Situation in Egypt. An Overview and Perspective on Orbivirus Disease Prevalence and Occurrence of Vectors in Australia and Oceania. An Overview and Perspective on Orbivirus Disease Prevalence and Occurrence of Vectors in North America. EPIDEMIOLOGY. Epidemiology of Orbiviruses-Bluetongue: Towards 2000 and the Search for Patterns. Occupation of an Ecological Niche in Pacific Ocean Countries by Bluetongue and Related Viruses. Results of a Decade's Monitoring for Orbiviruses in Sentinel Cattle Pastured in an Area of Regular Arbovirus Activity in Northern Australia. The Sentinel Herd as a Tool for Epidemiologic Studies of Bluetongue Virus Infections in the Caribbean and Central America. Central American and Caribbean Regional Bluetongue Epidemiologic Study: Antecedents and Geographic Review. Prevalence and Incidence of Bluetongue Viruses in the Caribbean Basin: Serologic and Virologic Findings. Analysis of Evidence of Clinical Bluetongue Disease in Central America and the Caribbean. Incursions of Orbiviruses in Canada and Their Serologic Monitoring in the Native Animal Population between 1962 and 1991. Distribution of Bluetongue in the United States. An Examination of the Bluetongue Virus Status of New York State. Epidemiologic Studies of Bluetongue Viral Infections in Indonesian Livestock. Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus Infection in Malaysia. Serologic and Virologic Diagnosis and Investigation of Bluetongue of Imported Animals. Serologic Survey and Vector Surveillance for Bluetongue in Southern Turkey. Present Position of African Horse Sickness and Bluetongue in India. Studies on Bluetongue in India: Distribution and Isolation of Viruses. Bluetongue Virus Antibodies in Buffaloes and Cattle in Haryana State of India. Epidemiologic Observation on Bluetongue in Sheep in the Marathwada Region of Maharashtra State in India. The Complete Epidemiologic Cycle of African Horse Sickness: Our Incomplete Knowledge. African Horse Sickness in Morocco, The Epizootics from 1989 and 1990. African Horse Sickness in Imported Horses in Kaduna and Kano States of Nigeria. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Infection in Cattle. Epidemiology of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses in Wildlife in the USA. Maintenance of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease of Deer Viruses in North Dakota. VECTOR BIOLOGY AND COMPETENCE. An Overview of Bluetongue Virus Vector Biology and Ecology in the Oriental and Australasian Regions of the Western Pacific. Genetics, Population Genetics, and Evolution of Culicoides variipennis: Implications for Bluetongue Virus Transmission in the USA and its International Impact. Molecular Genetic Approaches to Culicoides variipennis Vector Competence for Bluetongue Viruses. Culicoides as Potential Orbivirus Vectors in Europe. Weather, Culicoides, and the Distribution and Spread of Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness Viruses. The Possible Introduction to Israel of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) Borne Animal Diseases by Wind. Field Observations on the Ecology of Adult and Immature Stages of Culicoides spp. Associated with Livestock in Florida, USA. Potential Culicoides Vectors of Livestock Orbiviruses in South Africa. A Six-Year Survey of Viruses Associated with Culicoides Biting Midges Throughout South Africa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Vector Ecology of Bluetongue Viruses in Central America and the Caribbean. Viral Serotype Influences the Infection Rate of Culicoides variipennis with Bluetongue Viruses. Host Detection, Hourly Activity, and the Preferred Biting Sites of Culicoides imicola (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) on a Calf in Israel. THE VIRUSES. An Overview of the Orbiviruses. Molecular Comparison of the Cognate Genes of Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness, and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses Which Encode Nonstructural proteins NS2 and NS3. Morphogenesis of Bluetongue Viruses: Development of a Model for the Site of Virus Synthesis, Translocation, and Release from Infected Tissue Culture Cells. Studies on the Nucleic Acid Sequence and Expression of African Horse Sickness Virus and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus NS1-Encoding Genes. In Vitro Transcription of Exact RNA Copies of Bluetongue Virus Genome Segments from Full-Length cDNA Clones. Genes to Complex Structures of Bluetongue Viruses: Structure-Function Relationships of Bluetongue Virus Proteins. In Vitro Synthesis and Characterization of Chimeric Particles Involving Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) Virus and Bluetongue (BLU) Virus Gene Products: Functional Domains are Conserved on the EHD and BLU VP3 Protein. Interaction of ssRNA with NS2, the Non-Structural Phosphoprotein of Bluetongue Viruses and Formation of Inclusion Bodies. Analysis of Guanylyltransferase and Transmethylase Activities Associated with Bluetongue Virus Cores and Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Core-Like Particles. Monoclonal Antibodies Produced Against Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness Viruses by In Vitro Immunization Show a Bias for Structural Protein VP7. Recognition Sites in Assembly of Bluetongue Viruses. Biochemical and Immunologic Characterization of VP5 of Five USA Bluetongue Viruses. Identification of a Serotypic Neutralization Epitope Unique to VP2 of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 13. Nature of the Major Neutralizing Site of Bluetongue Viruses. Phylogenetic Relationships between Bluetongue Viruses and Other Orbiviruses. Molecular Cloning of RNA Segment 7 and Synthesis of the Major Core Antigen VP7 of African Horse Sickness Viruses by Recombinant Baculovirus: Its Use as a Group-Specific Diagnostic Reagent. The Complete Sequence of Genome Segment 10 from a Virulent Strain of USA Bluetongue Virus Serotype 11. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Genome Segment 5 of a Virulent Strain of USA Bluetongue Virus Serotype 11. Crystallographic Studies on the Structure of the Bluetongue Virus Inner Capsid. Analysis of Bluetongue Virus Serotype-Specific and Cross-Reactive Ovine T-Cell Determinants in Virus Structural Proteins. Purification and Protein Composition of Virus Particles, Infectious Sub-Viral Particles, Cores, and VP7 Crystals of African Horse Sickness Virus Serotype 9. DIAGNOSIS OF ORBIVIRAL DISEASES. Immune Responses to Orbiviruses. Diagnostic Procedures for Arboviruses. Diagnosis of Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease. Review of the IAEA Meeting in Vienna on Standardization of the Competitive ELISA Test and Reagents for the Diagnosis of Bluetongue. Evaluation of a Commercial Competitive ELISA for the Detection of Bluetongue Virus-Specific Antibodies. A Comparison of the Bluetongue Competitive-ELISA to Other Serologic Tests. Comparison of a "Dipstick" ELISA and Competitive ELISA for Detection of Antibodies to Bluetongue Viruses in Cattle Blood Samples. Competitive ELISA for Serodiagnosis of Bluetongue: Evaluation of Novel Reagents. The Use of a Monoclonal Antibody Against Bluetongue Virus Non-Structural Protein NS1 in a Competitive Assay for the Detection of Anti-Tubule Antibodies. Nature and Location of Epitopes Utilized in Competitive ELISA to Detect Bluetongue Virus Antibodies. Evaluation of Recombinant DNA-Expressed VP7 Protein as a Group-Reactive Antigen in the Blocking-ELISA for Bluetongue Viruses. Use of Bluetongue Viral and Yeast-Expressed Antigens in the Analysis of Sera by Competitive ELISA. The Use of the Competitive ELISA to Detect Neutralizing Antibodies Resulting from Superinfection with a Heterotypic Bluetongue Virus Serotypes. Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Central American and Caribbean Bluetongue Virus Serotypes. Laboratory Confirmation of African Horse Sickness Virus Antigens and Antibodies Using ELISA. Adaptation and Field Evaluation of an ELISA Sandwich for Detection of African Horse Sickness Viruses. Adaptation and Evaluation of an Indirect ELISA and Immuno-Blotting Test for African Horse Sickness Antibody Detection. Application of an ELISA for Detection of Antibodies to Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses in Bovine Sera. A Combined ELISA for Screening of Bovine Sera for Antibodies to Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease of Deer Viruses. Gamma Irradiation Alters Bluetongue Virus Antigen and Its Reactivity in the ELISA. Detection of Bluetongue Viruses by an Antigen-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Detection of Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness Viruses Using Dot-Spot and Conventional In Situ Hybridization. Detection of Bluetongue Virus RNA Using Serogroup- and Serotype-Specific cDNA Probes from Bluetongue Virus Serotype 13. The Use of RNA Detection Techniques to Identify Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses in Culcoides variipennis. Virus Isolation Technology for Australian Orbiviruses. Virus Isolation and Antibody Response Resulting from Inoculation of Sheep with Bluetongue Virus "Spiked" Semen. Detection of Cell Culture-Adapted Bluetongue Viruses Using a cDNA Probe Derived from Genome Segment 4. THE DISEASE: VIRUS-HOST INTERACTIONS. Overview of Bluetongue Virus Infection of Sheep. Bluetongue Virus Infection of Cattle. Clinico-Pathology of Australian Bluetongue Virus Serotypes for Sheep. Investigations of the Effects of Natural Infection with Orbiviruses on Reproduction in Cattle. Strain-Dependent Variations in the Pathogenesis of Fetal Infection with Bluetongue Virus Serotype 11. Genetic and Antigenic Variation of Bluetongue Viruses in the Western USA. Failure to Establish Congenital Bluetongue Virus Infection by Injecting Cows in Early Pregnancy. Comparison of the Neutralizing Immune Responses of Sheep and Cattle to Bluetongue Viruses. Differential Serologic Responses to Reassortant Bluetongue Viruses Recovered from a Bull. Bluetongue Virus Tropism for Bovine Lymphocyte Sub-Populations. A Murine Model for the Study of Bluetongue Virus Protein-Specific Protective Immune Responses. Effect of Bluetongue Viruses on Sheep Neutrophil and Macrophage Function. Histamine and Arachidonic Acid Metabolite Levels During Experimental Infection of Cattle with Bluetongue Virus Serotype 11. Infection of Endothelial Cells by African Horse Sickness Viruses. Interaction of African Horse Sickness Viruses with Leukocytes and the Capacity to Induce an Immune Response In Vitro. The Value of Donkeys as Sentinels for African Horse Sickness. The Pathology of African Horse Sickness. Rabbit Syncytium Virus is an Orbivirus. CONTROL. The Australian Bluetongue Control Strategy. Attenuated and Inactivated Orbiviral Vaccines. Second Generation Candidate Vaccine for Bluetongue Disease. The Australian Experience: Results of a Bluetongue Vaccination Program. Development, Production, and Quality Control of an Industrial Inactivated Vaccine Against African Horse Sickness Virus Serotype 4. Antibody Titers in Horses After Vaccination with African Horse Sickness Virus Serotype 4. Efficacy of an Inactivated Vaccine for African Horse Sickness Virus Serotype 4. Integrated Management of Culicoides variipennis: A Problem of Applied Ecology. REGULATORY ISSUES. Bluetongue Research Coordination in Australia. Animal and Animal Product Importation and the Assessment of Risk. Definition of Vector-Free by Monitoring of Sentinel Cattle for Multiple Arbovirus Infections. Bluetongue Virus Tests for Germplasm Export. What is Really Necessary? A Revised Certification Protocol for Bull Semen for Bluetongue Virus-Free Status. Policy Considerations for Bluetongue in the Caribbean Basin. An Entomologic and Epidemiologic Perspective for Bluetongue Regulatory Changes for Livestock Movement from the USA and Observation on Bluetongue in the Caribbean Basin. A Suggested Simplified System of Nomenclature. WORKING TEAM REPORTS. Working Team Report on International Impacts. Working Team Report on Epidemiology. Working Team Report on Vectors: Recommendations for Research on Culicoides Vector Biology. Working Team Report on Molecular Virology: Identify Nucleic Acid Sequences and Antigens/Epitopes for Use in Diagnostic Procedures and Molecular Epidemiology. Working Team Report on Diagnostics. Working Team Report on Germplasm. Working Team Report on Regulatory Issues. SUMMARY OF THE SYMPOSIUM. Summary of the 2nd International Symposium on Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness, and Related Orbiviruses. Summary of the 2nd International Symposium on Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness, and Related Orbiviruses. Index.