FROM THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE
This book . . . is focused on the structure and function relationships of the four major hydrolytic enzymes, cellulases, cellobiohydrolases, b-glucosidases, and xylanases as it relates to their mechanism of action. It should be of interest to biotechnologists and industrial researchers interested in manipulating these enzymes to their full potential as catalysts for various current and new applications.
It begins with an overview of the nature of cellulose and heteroxylan, followed by a description of the enzymes involved in its hydrolysis, their general structure, characteristics, and classification.
Chapter 3 discusses how these various enzymes are integrated and associated for the efficient solubilization of cellulose and heteroxylan. This includes a review of the literature concerning the cellulosomes and other cellulolytic complexes. The chapter on production and purification provides an overview of this subject matter. . . .
These first four chapters thus set the stage for the more comprehensive discussion of the mechanism of action of each of the primary hydrolases which follows. . . . [T]he data pertaining to the catalytic mechanism of both the retaining and inverting forms of these enzymes since such studies were initiated on cellulases . . . in 1954 is reviewed in Chapter 5. The book concludes with an overview of the mode of action of the enzymes and a discussion, citing a few examples, of how the modern methods of molecular biology, enzymology, and X-ray crystallography are being used to manipulate selected enzymes for a variety of biotechnological and industrial purposes.
The information in this new book will be of value to scientists and researchers working in the areas of biochemistry, botany, crop science, ecology, microbiology and mycology, in addition to those in the forestry and forest product industries.
Table of Contents
Chemistry and Structure of Cellulose and Heteroxylan
Cellulose - Heteroxylans and Associated Polymers: Composition and structure, Conformation and interactions of heteroxylan - Localization of Cellulose and Heteroxylans
Enzymology of Biodegradation of Cellulose and Heteroxylans
Properties of Cellulolytic and Heteroxylanolytic Enzymes: Cellulase, Cellobiohydrolase, beta-Glucosidase, Xylanase, beta-Xylosidase - Glycosylation of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes - Classification of beta-Glycosidases - Domain Structure: Cellulose binding domains, Linker sequences, Repeated sequences, Multi-catalytic domains
Interactions and Associations
Multiplicity - Synergy: Cellulolytic enzymes, Heteroxylanolytic enzymes - Cellulosomes
Production and Purification
Induction: Cellulolytic enzymes, Xylanolytic enzymes, Heteroxylan side-chain hydrolases - Repression - Product Inhibition - Detection - Assay of Enzyme Activity: Cellulolytic enzymes, Xylanolytic enzymes - Production - Isolation: Fungi, Bacteria - Purification
The Catalytic Mechanism of Action
Stereochemistry - Catalytic Mechanism of Retaining and Inverting Glycosidases: Kinetics, Chemical modifications, Affinity labelling and mechanism-based inhibition, Mechanism of catalysis - Structure and Function Relationship of Catalytic Sites: Retaining enzymes, Inverting enzymes, Enzymes with uncharacterized stereochemistry
Structure and Function Relationship
Substrate-Binding Subsites - Identification of Binding Residues: Spectroscopy, Chemical modification, X-Ray crystallography - Modification of Catalytic Properties by Rational Design - Concluding Remarks