Like almost every major scientific or medical breakthrough in history, the transdermal delivery of drugs started as only an idea - slowly moving its way from the drawing board to actual testing and eventually approval. Today, there are more than 20 companies involved in transdermal drug delivery. In addition, almost every large pharmaceutical firm has ongoing transdermal delivery programs. But in spite of this effort and after 15 years from the introduction of the Nitroglycerin patch, only six transdermal drugs exist in the marketplace.
The practice has been hampered by the fact that most drugs, as well as many excipients used in the manufacture of transdermal patches, cause skin irritation or skin sensitization. Similar problems exist with the application of dermatologicals and cosmetics to skin, which in many cases are equally as severe as those encountered in transdermal delivery.
Biochemical Modulation of Skin Reactions: Transdermals, Topicals, Cosmetics presents a series of chapters describing technologies and the practical application of biochemicals which might lead to the reduction or abrogation of these skin reaction. In addition, it addresses those areas of skin immunology and skin sciences that account for the processes that control irritant and allergic contact dermatitis and outlines the numerous cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of irritation and sensitization.
Indeed, Biochemical Modulation of Skin Reactions helps serve as a catalyst for further research in the field, allowing for more drugs and cosmetics to be applied to the skin without adverse effects.
Table of Contents
SECTION I: INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Fundamental Concepts in Transdermal Delivery of Drugs-Agis F. Kydonieus, John J. Wille, and George F. Murphy
The Skin as a Barrier: Structure and Function-Thomas J. Franz and Paul A. Lehman
Epidermal Lipid Metabolism and Barrier Function of Stratum Corneum-Philip W. Wertz and Bozena B. Michniak
Methods for Testing the Irritation and Sensitization Potential of Drugs and Enhancers-Saqib J. Bashir and Howard I. Maibach
Quantitative Structure Analysis Relationships in the Prediction of Skin Sensitization Potential-Saqib J. Bashir and Howard I. Maibach
Methods for Testing the Phototoxicity and Photosensitization of Drugs-Norbert J. Neumann, B. Homey, H.W. Vohr, and P. Lehmann
SECTION II: CELLULAR AND HUMORAL REGULATION AND PATHOGENESIS
Mechanisms of Allergic and Irritant Contact Dermatitis-Paul Wakem and Anthony A. Gaspari
The Langerhans Cell: Antigen Processing/Antigen Presentation-Ralf W. Denfeld and Jan C. Simon
The Keratinocyte in Cutaneous Irritation and Sensitization-Alain Coquette, Nancy Berna, Yves Poumay, and Mark R. Pittelkow
Pathogenesis of Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Role of T-Cells-Richard S. Kalish
The Keratinocyte In Cutaneous Irritation and Sensitization-
Mast Cells Regulate Endothelial Cell Function in Inflammation and Repair-Marcia R. Monteiro and George F. Murphy
Interleukin-1 Receptors and Signal Transduction-Charles A. Dinarello
Proinflammatory Mediators of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade-Kouichi Kiai
SECTION III: BIOCHEMICAL MODULATORS AND MODES OF ACTION
Modulation of Skin Reactions: A General Overview-Agis F. Kydonieus and John J. Wille
Glucocorticoids-Michel Cormier, James Matriano, and Alfred Amkraut
Ion Channel Modulation of Contact Dermatitis-John J. Wille, Agis F. Kydonieus, and Richard S. Kalish
Mast Cell Degranulating Agents Modulate Skin Immune Responses-John J. Wille, Agis F. Kydonieus, and George F. Murphy
Modulation of Neurogenic Inflammation by Strontium-Gary S. Hahn
Skin Tolerability of Iontophoresis Treatment-Bret Berner and Donald R. Wilson
The Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Immune Response-Stephen E. Ullrich
Immune Tolerance and Its Potential to Control Skin Reactions-Richard S. Kalish
Future Prospects and Areas of Promising Research-J. Wayne Streifeiy and Sharmila Masli
"…a thoroughly researched work that contains a wealth of information for the basic scientists and practitioners in the field of dermal drug delivery. It can be used as a textbook in a course on drug delivery, or as an invaluable reference book"
- Steven Dinh, Sc.D., Vice President, Research Emisphere Technologies Inc., Tarrytown, New York, USA