Aquatic and Surface Photochemistry provides a broad overview of current research in the emerging field of environmental aquatic and surface photochemistry. Selected reviews and current research articles are blended to provide an in-depth treatment of various aspects of this research area. The first part of the text deals with photochemistry in the environment, covering recent research on the following topics: aquatic photochemistry of organic pollutants and agrochemicals, photochemical cycling of carbon and transition metals (especially iron), photochemical formation of reactive oxygen species in natural waters, photoreaction in cloud and rain droplets, and photoreactions on environmental surfaces (soil, ash, metal, oxide). The second part provides discussions and data on both heterogeneous photocatalytic and homogeneous processes, with topics ranging from applications to mechanistic studies. These chapters illustrate the wide diversity of pollutant classes that are degradable by photochemical techniques and the effects of various reaction conditions on the rates and efficiency of the techniques. Current kinetic studies are presented, which provide new information about the role of adsorption and the nature of the reactive oxidizing species that mediate these photoremediation processes.This book will interest civil, chemical, and environmental engineers, as well as chemists, soil scientists, geochemists, and atmospheric chemists.
Table of Contents
Part 1: 1. A Review of the Photochemical Redox Reactions of Iron , Species in Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Surface Waters- Influences on Geochemical Cycles and Oxidant Formation B.C. Faust 2. Photoredox Transformations of Iron and Manganese in Marine Systems- Review of Recent Field Investigations T.D. Waite and R. Szymczak 3. Photoredox Reactions at the Surface of Iron Hydr-Oxides B. Sulzberger, H. Laubscher, and G. Karametaxas 4. Photochemical Reactions in Atmospheric Waters: Role of Dissolved Iron Species J. Hoign�Y. Zuo, and L. Nowell 5. A Temperature-Dependent Competitive Kinetics Study of the Aqueous-phase Reactions of OH Radicals with Formate Formic Acid, Acetate, Acetic Acid, and Hydrated Formaldehyde M. Chin and P.H. Wine 6. Factors Affecting Photolysis of Organic Compounds on Soils G.C. Miller and S.G. Donaldson 7. Recent Advances in the Photochemistry of Natural Dissolved Organic Matter W.L. Miller 8. Organic Dyes Bound to Polyelectrolytes- Photophysical Probes of Binding Domains and Biopolymer Conformation G. Jones, II, C. Oh, and G.L. Indig 9. Photochemical Degradation of Triazine and Anilide Pesticides in Natural Waters F.H. Frimmel and D.P. Hessler 10. The Relationship of Hydroxyl Reactivity to Pesticide Persistence S.A. Mabury and D.G. Crosby 11. Effect of Some Natural Photosensitizers on Photolysis of Some Pesticides R. Tsao and M. Eto 12. Sorption and Photochemical Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds on Coal Stack Ash Particles E.L. Wehry and G. Mamantov 13. Photodehalogenation of 1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin P.K. Freeman and S.A. Hatlevig 14. Photoinduced Reactions on Clay and Model Systems X. Liu, K.-K. Iu, Y. Mao, and J.K. Thomas 15. Anthracene Photochemistry in Aqueous and Heterogeneous Media M.E. Sigman and S.P. Zingg 16. Hydrogen Peroxide Formation and Decay in Lake Waters D.R.S. Lean, W.J. Cooper, and F.R. Pick 17. Singlet Oxygen Formation in Lake Waters from Mid-Latitudes Chihwen Shao, William J. Cooper, and David R. S. Lean 18. Aqueous-Phase Photochemical Formation of Peroxides in Authentic Cloud Waters Cort Anastasio, John M. Allen, and Bruce C. Faust 19. Aqueous-Phase Photochemical Formation of Peroxyl Radicals and Singlet Molecular Oxygen in Cloud Water Samples from Across the United States John M. Allen and Bruce C. Faust 20. Examining the Role of Singlet Oxygen in Photosensitized Cytotoxicity Thomas A. Dahl Part 2: 21. Photocatalytic Treatment of Waters D. Bahnemann, J. Cunningham, M. A. Fox, E. Pelizzetti, P. Pichat, and N. Serpone 22. Adsorption of Model Pollutants onto TiO2 Particles in Relation to Photoremediation of Contaminated Water Joseph Cunningham, Ghassan Al-Sayyed, and Somkiat Srijarani 23. Photocatalytic Detoxification of Polluted Aquifers: Novel Catalysts and Solar Applications Detlef W. Bahnemann, Dirk Bockelmann, Roland Goslich, and Marcus Hilgendo 24. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis- Use in Water Treatment and Involvement in Atmospheric Chemistry Chantal Guillard, Laurence Amalric, Jean-Christophe D'Oliveira, Herve Delprat, Can Hoang-Van, and Pierre Pichat 25. Photocatalyzed Destruction of Water Contaminants: Mineralization of Aquatic Creosote Phenolics and Creosote by Irradiated Particulates of the White Paint Pigment Titania Nick Serpone, Rita Tertian, Darren Lawless, Anne-Marie Pelletier, Claudio Minero, and E2io Pelizzetti 26. Mechanistic Studies of Chloro- and Nitrophenolic Degradation on Semiconductor Surfaces K. A. Gray, Prashant Karat, U. Stanford, and M. Dieckmann 27. Spin-Trap EPR Studies of Intermediates Involved in Photodegradation Reactions on TiOga- Is the Process Heterogeneous or Homogeneous? Lizhong Sun, K.-Micnael Schindler, Aitken R. Hoy, and James R. Bolton 28. Phenol and Nitrophenol Photodegradation Using Aqueous TiO2 Dispersions Antonino Stafani, Leonardo Palmisano, and Mario Seniavello 29. Accelerated Photooxidative Dissolution of Oil Spills Adam Heller and J. R. Brock 30. Photosensitization of Semiconductor Colloids by Humic Substances K. Vinodgopal and Prasnant V. Kamas 31. The Role of Support Material in the Photodegradation of Colored Organic Compounds Prashant V. Kamas and K. Vinodgopal 32. Hydrogen Peroxide in Heterogeneous Photocatalysis Edward J. Wolfram and David F. Ollie 33. Homogeneous Photodegradation of Pollutants in Contaminated Water- An Introduction James R. Bolton and Stephen R. Cater 34. Determination of Rate Constants for Reactive Intermediates in the Aqueous Photodegradation of Pollutants Using a Spin-Trap/EPR Method Aitken R. Hoy and James R. Bolton 35. Reaction Pathways in Advanced Oxidation Processes C. C. David Yao and Theodore Mill 36. Photooxidation of Organic Compounds in Water and Air Using Low-Wavelength Pulsed Xenon Lamps Werner R. Haag