First suggested in 1863 by Marey, abdominal compartment syndrome, (ACS), is a constellation of the physiologic sequelae of increased intra-abdominal pressure, (IAP), termed intra-abdominal hypertension, (IAH). Recent observations suggest an increasing frequency of this complication in all types of patients, neonates to the elderly and in diverse clinical conditions, surgical to non-surgical. Even chronic elevations of IAP seem to effect the various organ systems in the body. Despite its obvious clinical implications, not enough attention is paid to IAP and IAH. ACS is still not uniformly appreciated or diagnosed. Only a few medical and surgical intensivists believe in the concept of IAH and actively attempt its prevention and treatment. The result, as is strongly substantiated by retrospective and prospective data, is a successful reduction in organ failures and mortality. Abdominal compartment syndrome is a condition that, until recently, has been poorly appreciated, despite important potential implications for all organ systems. Recent interest has helped clarify the local and systemic effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure and heightened awareness of the importance of early recognition and treatment. This book, written by international experts in the field, follows the first World Congress on Abdominal Compartment Syndrome held in Noosa, Australia in December 2004, and provides an excellent update on this topical subject. Comprehensively constructed, this book covers all key aspects of the syndrome, from definitions and diagnosis to monitoring and management, and is supported throughout by appropriate and ample illustrations. Many of the detrimental consequences of abdominal compartment syndrome are reversible with appropriate and timely intervention, and, although many questions remain unanswered regarding this condition, this book provides a welcome and detailed source of current information and opinion on abdominal compartment syndrome, which will be helpful to all health care practitioners, and ultimately to their patients. This book covers every aspect of the abdominal compartment syndrome, including diagnosis, complications, management, and prevention. To date, there is nothing comparable. This is a landmark contribution to the literature regarding this condition.