A Century of X-Rays and Radioactivity in Medicine: With Emphasis on Photographic Records of the Early Years celebrates three great discoveries-x-rays (1895), radioactivity (1896), and radium (1898)-and recalls the pioneering achievements that founded the new science of radiology and changed the face of medicine forever. Over 700 historical illustrations with full and informative captions are supported by short introductory essays to illuminate the fascinating radiological past in an easy-to-read style.
The focus of this book is on the historically more interesting early years of discovery, invention, diagnosis, therapy, dosimetry, risk, and protection. Interspersed with a variety of radiological anecdotes, the photographic record is complemented by archival accounts of the pioneer scientists and physicians and their early patients. In the chapters on diagnostic techniques, radiotherapy, and nuclear medicine, the author contrasts old methods with newer technologies. He also includes two fascinating chapters on museum and industrial applications of radiography. The book is comprehensively indexed for easy retrieval of the wide variety of people, techniques, apparatus, and examples featured throughout this radiological journey.
Table of Contents
Discovery of x-rays: Wilhelm Conrad R^D"ontgen: R^D"ontgen: 1845-1923; R^D"ontgen's apparatus: 1895-1896; R^D"ontgen's first communication and x-ray pictures; Reaction from the public: 1896. Discovery of Radioactivity and Radium: Henri Becquerel and Marie Curie: Henri Becquerel: 1852-1908; Marie Curie: 1867-1934; The laboratory in Paris: 1898; Radium and Marie Curie: 1904-1923; Radium Institute, Warsaw: 1925-1936; Marie Curie museum, Warsaw. Early days of x-rays and radium: diagnosis, therapy and experiment: X-ray reports 1896; X-ray pictures 1896; Radium pictures: 1904; Radium experiment in a New York garden: 1907; Patients: x-rays 1901, radium 1907; 1896 patient: Vienna, 70 years later; Real and fake diamonds: 1896-1898; Radium applicators, tubes and needles; X-ray apparatus constructed 1896-1897; N-rays: 1903-1904; X-rays on wheels: 1907-1919; X-ray therapy in Philadelphia, 1907: lupus, cancer and epilepsy; Early X-ray patents; Tavern of the dead: 1896; Biological experiments: Freiburg, 1918 and Paris, 1933; Endoscopic positioning: Paris, 1897; X-ray injuries and x-ray protection; An 1897 catalogue: Erlangen. Archives of clinical skiagraphy: the first radiological journal: 1896-1899: The skeleton; Tuberculosis ... or a coin in the throat?; Cine-radiography; Treatment of lupus; Peruvian osteosarcoma aged 600 years; Marine biology; Radiographic positioning; Other early journals. Gas Tubes: 1895-1913: Sir William Crookes; First x-ray picture: Philadelphia, 1890, Pear-shaped x-ray tubes: 1896; X-ray tube technology: 1896-1902; X-ray tubes used by R^D"ontgen: 1895-1896; Self-regulating x-ray tubes: 1896-1903; Advertising: 1896-1913. Spark coils and interrupters: Induction coils: 1896 and 1901; Influence machines: 1887-1900; Mercury interrupters: 1906 and 1932; Electrolytic interrupter: 1902: Spark gap: 1896-1932; Interrupterless transformer: 1919. Hot cathode x-ray tubes: William Coolidge and thermionic emission: Coolidge tubes: 1913-1918; Glass blowing technology: 1914; Radiator-type Coolidge tubes: 1920s; Image sharpness: 1918 U.S. army manual; Rotating anode tubes: 1936 and 1989. Military Radiography: Sudan and the battle of Omdurman: 1898; The Spanish-American war: 1898; Mill power, 1901 and horsepower, 1909; The Boer war: 1899-1902; The Escadrille Pozzi: 1918; X-ray wagons: 1914-1918 war; Projectile localisation and fluoroscopy: 1914-18 war. Animal radiographs: Frogs; Birds and bat; Cat, dog, mole, rabbit and chameleon; Fish; Snake and crocodile; Elephant and beetle; Kangaroo jaw? Diagnostic radiology: I: Fluoroscopy: 1896-1902; Intensifying screens: 1896-1935; Fluoroscopy in the U.S. Army: 1918: X-ray plates and films: 1896 and 1920s; Mackenzie Davidson portable localiser: 1897; Stereoscopy: 1896 and 1901; Image intensifier: 1972; Fluoroscopy: 1923 and 1956; Fluoroscopy advertisement: Paris, 1897; Barium enema and barium meal: 1988; Image processing: 1988; Diagnositc imaging modalities: 1993. Diagnostic Radiology: II: Bismuth meal: 1908, 1919 and 1923; Private radiology clinic: London, 1897; Image intensifiers: 1962, 1969 and 1975. Diagnostic radiology: III: Kidney stones: 1899 and 1900; Radiographic positioning, kidney: 1923; Bladder stone: 1904; Compression apparatus: 1903 and 1914; Potter-Bucky grid: 1920s; Surgery and handwriting: 1896; Couches: 1898- 1918. Diagnostic Radiology: IV: Arteriogram, injection of four pounds of mercury: London 1899; Arteriograms from Australia: 1904; Cardiac image: Glasgow, 1896; Snowden ward and a double thumb: 1896; A.W. Isenthal's London X-ray laboratory: 1899; Angiography: 1980s-1990s; Skulls: 1896 x-rays compared with 1990 magnetic resonance. Diagnostic Radiology: V: Dental radiographs: 1896, 1902, 1969 and 1985; Dental x-ray apparatus: 1902, 1915 and 1920; Exposure chart: 1921; Sea shells: London, 1904. Diagnostic Radiology: VI: Linear tomography: 1935 and 1988; EMI CT scanners: 1972-1976; CT scanners: 1990s. Paintings and museum artefacts: Radiographs of paintings: 1920-1930; Discovery of a 17th century painting; The anatomy lesson of Dr Joan Deyman; Egyptian and Peruvian mummies; Authentication of museum artefacts; 19th century doll; Queen Nefertiti; Grand piano of 1749; The earth apple of 1492-1494. Industrial applications: R^D"ontgen's rifle: 1896; Non-destructive testing: 1896, 1916 and 1934; The Liberty Bell; Industrial apparatus: UK, 1944 and Russia, 1960; Customs and smuggling; 1896-1989; Shoe fitting: the Pedoskop; Mercedes car. External beam radiotherapy: I: First successful treatments of cancer: Stockholm, 1899; Apparatus: 1900-1909; X-ray therapy and radium therapy: 1896-1970s; Treatment planning: 1914; Treatment plans and isodose curves: 1919-1925 and 1980; X-ray cannons: 1920-1938; Deep x-ray therapy: 1923-1960; Van de Graaff generators: 1929-1985; Betatrons: 1980-1992; Linear accelerators: 1953-1993. External beam radiotherapy: II: Radium bombs: 1917-1965; Telecaesium machine: 1965; Telecobalt machines: 1955-1980. Brachytherapy: Radium patient treatments: Paris, 1908-1923; Radium surface moulds: 1905-1929; Interstitial brachytherapy: Dublin, 1914; Interstitial afterloading: Munich, 1903 and New York, 1906; Paterson and Parker Manchester system: 1934-1938; Radon seeds, gold grains and tantulum hairpins: 1965; Manual afterloading gold and iridium techniques: 1953-1989; Gynaecological intracavitary applicators: 1905-1993; Breast cancer: 1929 and 1992; Prostate cancer: 1922 and 1992; Lung cancer: 1929 and 1993; Brain and pituitary tumours: 1929-1992; Oesophagus cancer: 1904 and 1913; Head and neck cancer; 1915-1933; Bile duct cancer: 1992; Remote afterloading: 1962-1993; Patient case history: Paris, 1986-1992. Nuclear medicine: Geiger counters and scintillation counters: 1940s-1980s; Whole body counters: 1958-1987; Rectilinear scanners: 1950-1966; Rectilinear scans: lung, brain, bone, liver; Gamma cameras: 1958-1980s; Gamma camera scans: lung, bone, heart, brain, liver; Technetium-99m generators: 1970s-1980s; Phantoms: 1960s-1980s; Single photonemission computed tomography, SPECT: 1964-1993; Positron emission tomography, PET: 1964-1993. Radiation units and quantities, and radiation measurement: Strength/intensity/activity: 1904; Uranie: 1905; Milligram-hour: 1909; Curie: 1910; Rutherford: 1930; Millicurie destroyed: 1914; Mache: 1904; Biological effects: 1904-1934; Fluorescence: 1902-1926; Minutes: 1916; Temperature variation: 1906-1914; X-ray tube current: 1904; Photographic film blackening: 1902-1959; Thermoluminescence: 1904-1990s; Chemical effects: 1904-1927; Selenium cell measurement: 1915; Idiosyncrasy and dosage: 1911; Heating effect: 1912-1953; 10 millir^D"ontgen + FDE: 1971; Soft and hard x-ray quality: 1900-1937; Ionisation units for x-rays: 1906-1937; Ionisation units for gamma-rays: 1904- 1937; Ionisation measuring instruments: 1896-1990s. Radiation risks and radiation protection: Radiation injury to an x-ray engineer: Erlangen, 1904-1913; William Morton's New York x-ray laboratory: 1896; X-ray quality assurance: 1904-1911; Spectacles: 1910-1939 and (1980!); Lead protection features, x-rays: 1907-1909; Lead protection features, radium: 1920-1960; Lost radium: USA, 1938; Radon production: Paris, 1920s; Radon therapy: 1913-1920s; Radium compress: Strasbourg 1920s; Taking a bath at Joachimsthal: 1918; Radiation-induced cancer: 42-year latency; Hiroshima, 1945 and Chernobyl, 1986; X-ray treatment and sterility: New York, 1925-1958; Radium beauty creams: Paris, 1919 and 1933; Zo^D'e atomic soda. Bibliography: selected books for further reading. References: chapters 1-23. Index.
"… illustrated richly with an encyclopedic collection of most curios and enlightening prints depicting the entire course of the development of radiology in medical practice from the time of the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity from 1895 onward."
-International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology
"… a charming and quirky collection of the familiar and unfamiliar, the old and new, the mundane and bizarre. It is a treasure trove for instructors looking for anecdotes and at the same time, a solid source of historical information."
"If you buy only one book on the history of radiology, then this should probably be it."
-The Radiology History and Heritage Charitable Trust, No. 5, Summer 1994
"… a timely book."
-Radiology, September 1994
"… a fascinating read. … an excellent book … deserves to be read widely … highly recommended…"
-The British Journal of Radiology
"… it is difficult to fault the author … As visual history, it is truly an eyeful."
-Clinical Nuclear Medicine, Volume 20, May 1995
"… a marvelous book! … I can recommend it as interesting, absorbing, and excellent value."
"Anyone with the slightest interest in the application of radiation to medicine will find this volume a fascinating addition to their personal or institutional library. …profusely illustrated with compelling images … I strongly recommend this book, which will provide much enjoyable reading and fascinating insight into the development of radiation medicine, imaging, and therapy."
-European Journal of Nuclear Medicine