Handbook of Biofunctional Surfaces

Handbook of Biofunctional Surfaces

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Features

  • Summarizes important aspects of the fundamental scientific challenges and potential applications of biofunctional surface architectures
  • Attracts the interest of a broad multidisciplinary readership coming from the natural sciences, including biology, from the medical disciplines, and from engineering
  • Complements many community activities, e.g., activities of the AVS, the organization of numerous conferences covering this topic, e.g., a Gordon Conference on Biointerfaces

Summary

The design and synthesis of molecularly or supramolecularly defined interfacial architectures have seen in recent years a remarkable growth of interest and scientific research activities for various reasons. On the one hand, it is generally believed that the construction of an interactive interface between the living world of cells, tissue, or whole organisms and the (inorganic or organic) materials world of technical devices such as implants or medical parts requires proper construction and structural (and functional) control of this organism–machine interface. It is still the very beginning of generating a better understanding of what is needed to make an organism tolerate implants, to guarantee bidirectional communication between microelectronic devices and living tissue, or to simply construct interactive biocompatibility of surfaces in general.

This exhaustive book lucidly describes the design, synthesis, assembly and characterization, and bio-(medical) applications of interfacial layers on solid substrates with molecularly or supramolecularly controlled architectures. Experts in the field share their contributions that have been developed in recent years.

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments

Self-Assembled Monolayers
Self-Assembled Monolayers: A Versatile Tool for Biofunctionalization of Surfaces
Atul N. Parikh and David L. Allara
Introduction
Self-Assembly Mechanisms
Spatial Patternability
Biologically Relevant Surface Functionalization
Summary
Gemini SAMs Kaoru Tamada and Shinobu Yokokawa
Introduction
Basic Characteristics of Gemini-Structured SAMs
Selective Adsorption of Tartatic Acid
Optical Resolution on Chiral SAMs
Summary
Physical Chemistry of Nonfouling Oligo (Ethylene Oxide)-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers Michael Grunze
Introduction
A Survey of Physicochemical Surface Properties Relevant for Biofouling
Surface Energy
Charge
Steric Repulsion by Polymer Brushes
Preparation of OEG-Terminated Alkanethiolate SAMs and Their Characterization
Stability of OEG and PEG Coatings
OEG SAMs on Other Substrates
Mechanisms of "Inertness" of OEG SAMs
Hydration of Oligo(Ethylene Oxide)
The Thermodynamic Perspective
Conclusions
Electrochemically Designed Self-Assembled Monolayers for the Selective Immobilization and Release of Ligands, Proteins, and Cells Omar Azzaroni and Roberto C. Salvarezza
Introduction
Electrochemistry of Thiol Self-Assembled Monolayers on Metal Surfaces
Controlling Biological Activity Using Electroactive Self-Assembled Monolayers
Controlling the Release of Bioactive Elements by Electrochemical Desorption of Self-Assembled Monolayers
Conclusions
OM-CVD on Patterned SAMs Silvia Mittler
Introduction 140
OM-CVD of Cu onto Patterned MPTS and SAMs on OTS as a Blocking Resist
OM-CVD of Pd and Pt onto Patterned OTS SAMs as a Blocking Resist
OM-CVD-Grown Au on Stamped SAMs on Au/Mica
OM-CVD-Grown Gold NPs in Rows on SNOM Nanolithographically Manipulated HDT SAMs on Au
OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Cu– Ion Patterned OTS SAMs on Oxidized Silicon Wafers
OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Ga+ Ion FIB-Patterned OTS SAMs on Oxidized Silicon Wafers
OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Ga+ Ion FIB-Patterned OTS SAMs on Oxidized Silicon Wafers with Additional Density Control due to the Application of a Binary Mixed Refilled SAM
OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Ga+ Ion FIB-Patterned OTS SAMs on SiO2/ITO/Glass and Directly on Glass
Conclusion

Brushes, Dendrimers, Networks
Modification of Glass Surfaces by Phosphorus Dendrimer Layers for Biosensors
Anne-Marie Caminade and Jean-Pierre Majoral
Introduction
Modification of Inorganic Surfaces by Phosphorus Dendrimers
Chemical Sensors Based on Phosphorus Dendrimers
Biosensors Based on Phosphorus Dendrimers
Conclusion
Biofunctional Dendrons Grafted on a Surface Young-Eun Choi and Joon Won Park
Introduction
Self-Assembly of Dendrons through Covalent Bonds
Self-Assembly of a Dendron through a Noncovalent Bond
Conclusion
Surface-Attached Polymeric Hydrogel Films Ulrich Jonas, Coenraad R. van den Brom, Annette Brunsen, and Robert F. Roskamp
Introduction
Hydrogel Systems
Structure and Properties of Hydrogel Layers
Applications
Conclusion and Outlook
Evanescent Wave Biosensors with a Hydrogel Binding Matrix 361 Jakub Dostalek, Yi Wang, Chun Jen Huang, and Wolfgang Knoll
Introduction
Key Characteristics of Hydrogel Binding Matrices
Evanescent Wave Optics for Probing Hydrogel Films
Mass Transport and Affinity Binding of Analyte in a Gel
Biosensor Implementations
Conclusion and Outlook
Surface Modification of High-Strength Interpenetrating Network Hydrogels for Biomedical Device Applications David Myung, Lampros Kourtis, Jaan Noolandi, Jennifer Cochran, Christopher N. Ta, and Curtis W. Frank
Introduction
Literature Review
Bulk and Surface Properties of PEG/PAA IPN Hydrogels
Cellular Interaction with Surface-Modified PEG/PAA Hydrogels
Summary and Outlook
Ultrasensitive Biosensing with Polymer Brushes Fang Yu
Introduction
Polymer Brush Matrix Based on Dextran Chemistry
Protein Immobilization on a Dextran Matrix
Comparison between 2D and 3D Matrices
LOD Evaluation
SPFS PSA Assay
Conclusion

Peptides, Proteins
Noncovalent Immobilization of Proteins to Surfaces
Pascal Jonkheijm and Jurriaan Huskens
Introduction
Site-Selective Noncovalent Immobilization Methods
Conclusion and Perspectives
Recent Progress on Site-Selective Covalent Methods for Generating Protein Biochips Qi An and Pascal Jonkheijm
Introduction
Site-Selective Surface Immobilization of Proteins
Conclusion and Perspectives
S-Layer Proteins Uwe B. Sleytr, Dietmar Pum, Eva Maria Egelseer, Nicola Ilk, and Bernhard Schuster
Introduction
Location and Ultrastructure of S-Layers
Isolation, Chemical Characterization, and Molecular Biology
Assembly of S-Layers in vivo
Self-Assembly of Isolated S-Layer Subunits (in vitro)
S-Layer Ultrafiltration Membranes
S-Layers as Matrix for the Immobilization of Functional Macromolecules and Nanoparticles
S-Layer Fusion Proteins and S-Layer Neoglycoproteins
S-Layers as a Matrix for Biomineralization
S-Layer-Stabilized Planar Lipid Membranes and Liposomes
Conclusions
Peptide Nanotube Coatings for Bioapplications Lise T. de Jonge and Molly M. Stevens
Introduction
Self-Assembled Peptide-Based Nanotubes
Peptide Nanotube Coatings
Peptide Nanotubes for Bioapplications
Summary and Outlook

Sugars
Heparan Sulfate Surfaces to Probe the Functions of the Master Regulator of the Extracellular Space
Nina S. Azmi and David G. Fernig
Biological Significance of Glycosaminoglycans
Heparin and Heparan Sulfate
Oligosaccharide Preparation
Strategies for Functionalizing Surfaces with HS, Heparin, and Derived Oligosaccharides
Applications of HS- and Heparin-Functionalized Surfaces
Opportunities for Heparin- and HS-Functionalized Surfaces
Conclusion
Heparanated Surfaces Victor Nurcombe, William R. Birch, and Simon M. Cool
Proteoglycans: Core Proteins and GAG Sugars (Mulloy)
Heparan Sulfate Biochemistry
The GAG Chains on Proteoglycans are "Catalysts of Molecular Encounter"
HS Functions
Glycosaminoglycans and Surfaces
The Manipulation of Signaling by Immobilized HS
Experiments on Specific Heparanated Surfaces
Conclusions

Lipid Bilayer Membranes
Biomimetic Systems: The Tethered Bilayer Lipid Membrane
Stefan M. Schiller
Introduction
Models of the Biological Membrane
Components of the tBLM and Their Properties
Examples for tBLMs, Detection Schemes, and Their Applications
Current and Future Directions
Cell-Free Synthesis of Complex Membrane Proteins Ahu Arslan Yildiz, Sandra Ritz, and Eva-Kathrin Sinner
Introduction
Methods and Experimental Approaches
Incorporation of Isolated Protein
Detection of Cyt-bo3 Expression and Insertion by SPFS
Immune-Blotting Assay
Enzymatic Functionality Assay
Conclusion and Outlook
Integrin-Functionalized Artificial Membranes as Test Platforms for Monitoring Small Integrin Ligand Binding by Surface Plasmon–Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy Ute Reuning, Daniela Lössner, Birgit Wiltschi, Wolfgang Knoll, and Eva-Kathrin Sinner
Surface Plasmon Resonance and Surface Plasmon–Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy as Tools for Recording Binding Events to Membrane-Embedded Receptor Proteins
Development of an Integrin/Ligand-Binding Test on Artificial Membranes Established on SPR/SPFS Biosensors
SPR/SPFS Monitoring of Binding Events of Different Ligands to Membrane-Embedded Integrins
SPR/SPFS, a Promising Scientific Method for the Characterization of Transmembrane Receptor Proteins
Supported Lipid Bilayer Formation Using Self-Spreading Phenomena Kazuaki Furukawa
Introduction
Preparation of Supported Lipid Bilayers by Self- Spreading
Self-Spreading Control Using Surface Patterns
Microchannel Device Using a Self-Spreading Lipid Bilayer as a Molecule Carrier
Interaction with a Nanoscale Structure
Summary and Perspective
Electrically Addressable, Biologically Relevant Surface-Supported Bilayers Janice Lin, Kalina Hristova, and Peter C. Searson
Introduction: Surface-Supported Bilayers as Models of Cell Membranes
Bilayers Produced via Langmuir–Blodgett Deposition
Theory of Impedance Spectroscopy of Supported Bilayers
Substrate
Polymer Cushion
Lipid Composition
Conclusion
Micropatterned Model Biological Membranes on a Solid Surface Kenichi Morigaki
Introduction
Micropatterned Model Membrane Composed of Polymerized and Fluid Lipid Bilayers
Facilitated Integration of Fluid Lipid Bilayers in the Presence of Polymeric Bilayers
Composite Membranes of Polymerized and Fluid Lipid Bilayers
Spatially Controlled Phase Separation
Conclusion and Outlook

Cells on Biofunctional Surfaces
Matrix Mysteries and Stem Cells
William Birch and Steve Oh
Introduction
Defined Media for hESC Culture
Defined Planar Surfaces for hESC Culture
Summary of 2D Surfaces for hESC Culture
Future Perspectives
Mechanical Cues for Cell Culture K. A. Melzak, S. Moreno-Flores, M. dM Vivanco, and Jose-Luis Toca-Herrera
Properties and Components of the ECM
Modification of Hard Surfaces with an ECM or ECM-Like Layer
Modification of Hard Surfaces with Collagen
Collagen Gels in Three Dimensions
Preparation and Modification of Substrates with Defined Mechanical Properties
In vitro Neuronal Cell Guidance by Protein Micro- and Nanocontact Printing Andreas Offenhäusser, Dirk Mayer, Simone Meffert, and Daniel Schwaab
Introduction
Surface-Bound Proteins Patterned by Soft Lithography
Neuronal Adhesion and Outgrowth
Summary
Hemocompatible Surfaces for Blood-Contacting Applications Yuquan Zou, Kai Yu, Benjamin F. L. Lai, Donald E. Brooks, and Jayachandran N. Kizhakkedathu
Introduction
Hemocompatible Surfaces Based on Polymer Brushes
Importance of the Use of New Screening Techniques for Assessing Hemocompatibility
Conclusions

Applications
Nanopatterning of Biomolecules by Dip-Pen Nanolithography
Xiaozhu Zhou, Sreenivasan Koliyat Parayil, Hai Li, and Hua Zhang
Introduction
Direct- and Indirect-Write DPN
Applications in Biological Systems
Conclusions and Outlook
Application of Biofunctional Surfaces in Medical Diagnostics Christa Nöhammer
Introduction
Basics and Potential of Microarray Technology
Microarrays for Cancer Diagnostics
Microarrays for Infectious Disease Diagnostics and Lab-on-a-Chip Systems
Nanopatterning for Bioapplications Patrick Domnanich and Claudia Preininger
Introduction
Fabrication Techniques
Applications
Outlook
Glucose Biosensors: Transduction Methods, Redox Materials, and Biointerfaces Roderick B. Pernites and Rigoberto C. Advincula
Introduction
Sensors
Materials and Methods
New Materials and Interfaces
Conclusions
Index

Editor Bio(s)

Wolfgang Knoll received a PhD in biophysics at the University of Konstanz in 1976. In 1977, he joined the group of Prof. E. Sackmann at the University of Ulm, Germany, working on model membrane systems and their phase behavior by neutron scattering and spectroscopic and thermodynamic measurements. After a postdoctoral stay at the IBM Research Laboratory in San Jose, California (1980–1981), and a stay as a visiting scientist at the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, he joined the Physics Department of the Technical University of Munich. From 1991 to 1999, he was head of Laboratory for Exotic Nanomaterials hosted by the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Wako, Japan. In 1992, he was appointed consulting professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering at Stanford University, California. In 1998, Dr. Knoll was appointed professor of chemistry (by courtesy) at the University of Florida in Gainesville and in 1999 adjunct professor at Hanyang University in Seoul, South Korea. From 1999 to 2003 he was a Temasek Professor at the National University of Singapore, and since 2008 is honorary professor at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences in Vienna, Austria, and visiting professor at the Nanyang Technological University of Singapore. Since 2008 he is scientific managing director of the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology in Vienna, Austria. His current research interests include aspects of the structure/order–property/function relationships of polymeric/organic systems, in particular in thin films and at functionalized surfaces.

 
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