Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures

Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures

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Summary

Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures provides a comprehensive and complete overview of all kinds of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures. Together with numerous examples of dams built in different countries, virtually all important dams in the Republic of Macedonia are described and illustrated.

The reader is guided through different aspects of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures in 35 chapters, which are subdivided in five themes:

I. Dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures – general;
II. Embankment dams;
III. Concrete dams;
IV. Hydromechanical equipment and appurtenant hydraulic structures;
V. Hydraulic schemes.

Subjects treated are general questions, design, construction, surveillance, maintenance and reconstructions of various embankment and concrete dams, hydromechanical equipment, spillway structures, bottom outlets, special hydraulic structures, composition of structures in river hydraulic schemes, reservoirs, environmental effects of river hydraulic schemes, and reservoirs and environmental protection. Special attention is paid to advanced methods of static and dynamic analysis of embankment dams.

The major achievements obtained by the author in 25 years of research and practical work are included in this revised English edition. For the original Macedonian edition of Dams and Appurtenant Hydraulic Structures, Ljubomir Tanchev was awarded the Goce Delcev Prize, the highest state prize for achievements in science in the Republic of Macedonia.

This well-illustrated work is intended for professionals specializing in the design, construction and exploitation of dams and for (graduate) students in civil, hydraulic and environmental engineering.

Table of Contents

PREFACE XV

PART ONE: Dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures – general

1 UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES BY MEANS OF HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES 3

  • 1.1 Introduction 3
  • 1.2 Hydraulic structures (definition, classification) 6
  • 1.3 General features of hydraulic structures 7
  • 1.4 Intent of dams. Elements of a dam and a reservoir 16
  • 1.5 Short review of the historical development of hydraulic structures 18

2 FOUNDATIONS OF DAMS 19

  • 2.1 On foundations for hydraulic structures in general 19
  • 2.2 Requirements for the foundation 22
  • 2.3 Investigation works regarding dam foundations 30
  • 2.4 Improvement of foundations 32

3 SEEPAGE THROUGH DAMS 42

  • 3.1 Action of seepage flow 42
  • 3.2 Mechanical action of seepage flow on the earth skeleton 43
  • 3.3 Seepage resistance of earth foundations and structures 46
  • 3.4 Theoretical aspects of seepage 47
  • 3.5 Practical solution of the problem of seepage 53
  • 3.6 Seepage in anisotropic soil conditions 56
  • 3.7 Seepage in nonhomogenous soil conditions 59
  • 3.8 Seepage of water through rock foundations 60
  • 3.9 Lateral seepage 63
  • 3.10 Seepage through the body of concrete dams 64

4 FORCES AND LOADINGS ON DAMS 66

  • 4.1 On forces and loadings on dams in general 66
  • 4.2 Forces from hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure 68
  • 4.3 Influence of cavitation and aeration on hydraulic structures 70
  • 4.4 Influence from waves 72
  • 4.5 Influence of ice and water sediment 78
  • 4.6 Seismic forces 80
  • 4.7 Temperature effects 84
  • 4.7.1 Temperature effects on embankment dams 84
  • 4.7.2 Temperature effects on concrete structures 86

5 DESIGNING HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES 87

  • 5.1 Basic stages in the process of the creation and use of hydraulic structures 87
  • 5.2 Investigation for design and construction of hydraulic structures 88
  • 5.3 Contents of the hydraulic design and design phases 91
  • 5.4 Project management and the role of legislation 96

PART TWO: Embankment dams

6 EMBANKMENT DAMS – GENERAL 101

  • 6.1 Introduction. Terminology. Classification 101
  • 6.2 Historical development of embankment dams 105
  • 6.3 Dimensions of the basic elements of embankment dams 108
  • 6.4 Choice of the dam site 113
  • 6.5 Materials for construction of embankment dams 115
  • 6.6 Choice of type of embankment dam 120
  • 6.7 Tailings dams 123

7 SEEPAGE THROUGH EMBANKMENT DAMS 127

  • 7.1 Kinds of seepage through the embankment dam body 127
  • 7.2 Seepage line and hydrodynamic net in embankment dams 129
  • 7.3 Measures against the harmful effect of seepage 134
  • 7.3.1 Action against local seepage rising 134
  • 7.3.2 Action against external suffosion 135
  • 7.4 Calculations of the casual seepage strength of earthfill dams 141

8 STATIC STABILITY OF EMBANKMENT DAMS 144

  • 8.1 Introduction 144
  • 8.2 Classical methods 144
  • 8.2.1 Method of Slices 145
  • 8.2.2 Wedge Method 149
  • 8.2.3 States in which stability of embankment dams is examined 150
  • 8.2.4 Stability of rockfill dams 156
  • 8.3 Contemporary methods 157
  • 8.3.1 Application of the Finite Elements Method 157
  • 8.3.2 Specific properties of the application of the Finite Element Method (FEM) for analysis of embankment dams 161
  • 8.3.3 Choice of constitutive law 161
  • 8.3.4 Simulation for dam construction in layers 170
  • 8.3.5 Simulation for filling the reservoir and the effect of water 173
  • 8.3.6 Simulation of behaviour at the interfaces of different materials 181
  • 8.3.7 Analysis of consolidation 186
  • 8.3.8 Creep of materials in the body of embankment dams 192
  • 8.3.9 Three-dimensional analysis 195

9 DYNAMIC STABILITY OF EMBANKMENT DAMS 197

  • 9.1 Effect of earthquakes on embankment dams 197
  • 9.2 Assessment of design earthquake 199
  • 9.2.1 Strength, attenuation and amplification of earthquakes 199
  • 9.2.2 Design Earthquake 203
  • 9.3 Liquefaction 205
  • 9.4 Analysis of stability and deformations in embankment dams induced by earthquakes 207
  • 9.4.1 Pseudo-Static Method 208
  • 9.4.2 Pseudo-static methods with a non-uniform coefficient of acceleration 209
  • 9.4.3 Equivalent linear method 215
  • 9.4.4 Pure nonlinear method 216

10 EARTHFILL DAMS 221

  • 10.1 Classification and construction of earthfill dams 221
  • 10.2 Structural details for earthfill dams 222
  • 10.2.1 Slope protection. 223
  • 10.2.2 Water-impermeable elements 228
  • 10.2.3 Drainages 234
  • 10.3 Preparation of the foundation and the joint between earthfill dams and the foundation 243
  • 10.3.1 Preparation of the general foundation 243
  • 10.3.2 Preparation of the foundation when using a dam cutoff trench 244
  • 10.3.3 Joint of the earthfill dam and the foundation 244

11 EARTH-ROCK DAMS 249

  • 11.1 Construction of earth-rock dams 249
  • 11.2 Earth-rock dams with vertical core 252
  • 11.3 Earth-rock dams with a sloping core 255
  • 11.4 Earth-rock dams of "soft" rocks 261
  • 11.5 Fissures in the core of earth-rock dams 263
  • 11.5.1 Kinds of fissures and causes for their occurrence 263
  • 11.5.2 Measures for preventing the occurrence of fissures 266
  • 11.6 Designing earth-rock dams in seismically active areas 273

12 ROCKFILL DAMS WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE FACING 275

  • 12.1 Definition, field of application and construction 275
  • 12.2 Modern dams with reinforced concrete facing 281
  • 12.3 Joints for reinforced concrete facings 290
  • 12.4 Construction of reinforced concrete facings 295
  • 12.5 Examples of modern dams with reinforced concrete facing 297

13 ROCKFILL DAMS WITH ASPHALTIC CONCRETE AND OTHER TYPES OF FACINGS 303

  • 13.1 Rockfill dams with asphaltic concrete facing 303
  • 13.1.1 General characteristics 303
  • 13.1.2 Composition and characteristics of hydraulic asphaltic concrete 304
  • 13.1.3 Construction of the asphaltic concrete facings 307
  • 13.1.4 Joint of the lining with a gallery or concrete cutoff in dam’s toe 312
  • 13.1.5 Joint of the facing with dam’s crest. 317
  • 13.2 Rockfill dams with steel facing 318
  • 13.3 Rockfill dams with facing of geomembrane 320

14 ROCKFILL DAMS WITH DIAPHRAGM WALL 327

  • 14.1 Rockfill dams with asphaltic concrete diaphragm wall 327
  • 14.1.1 Function, conditions of work and materials 327
  • 14.1.2 Structure of the asphaltic concrete diaphragm walls. 329
  • 14.1.3 Joint of diaphragm wall with the foundation and lateral concrete structures 336
  • 14.2 Other types of diaphragm walls 340
  • 14.2.1 Concrete diaphragm walls 340
  • 14.2.2 Grout and plastic diaphragm walls 345
  • 14.3 Stability of earth-rock dams with diaphragm wall 346

15 MONITORING AND SURVEILLANCE OF EMBANKMENT DAMS 351

  • 15.1 Task and purpose of monitoring 351
  • 15.2 Monitoring of pore pressure and seepage 352
  • 15.2.1 Hydraulic piezometers. 352
  • 15.2.2 Electric piezometers 356
  • 15.2.3 Monitoring of seepage. 357
  • 15.3 Monitoring of displacements 358
  • 15.3.1 Measurement of displacements at the surface of the dam 358
  • 15.3.2 Measuring displacements in the interior of the dam 359
  • 15.4 Measurements of stresses 367
  • 15.5 Seismic measurements 368
  • 15.6 General principles on the selection and positioning layout of measuring instruments 369

PART THREE: Concrete dams

16 GRAVITY DAMS ON ROCK FOUNDATIONS 375

  • 16.1 On gravity dams in general 375
  • 16.2 Mass concrete for dams 376
  • 16.2.1 General 376
  • 16.2.2 Constituent elements of mass concrete 377
  • 16.2.3 Parameters of concrete mixture 378
  • 16.2.4 Fabrication and placing of concrete 379
  • 16.3 Cross-section of gravity dams 379
  • 16.3.1 On the cross-section in general 379
  • 16.3.2 Theoretical cross-section 381
  • 16.3.3 Practical cross-section 383
  • 16.4 Dimensioning of concrete gravity dams 386
  • 16.4.1 Elementary methods 387
  • 16.4.2 Modern methods 388
  • 16.5 Determination of stresses 391
  • 16.5.1 Determination of stresses by the gravitational method 391
  • 16.5.2 Calculation of stresses by using the theory of elasticity 394
  • 16.5.3 Influence of temperature changes, shrinkage and expansion of concrete on stresses in dams 396
  • 16.5.4 Permissible stresses and cracks 398
  • 16.6 General structural features of gravity dams 398
  • 16.7 Stability of gravity dams on rock foundation 409
  • 16.7.1 Dam sliding and shearing across foundation 410
  • 16.8 Hollow gravity dams 414

17 GRAVITY DAMS ON SOIL FOUNDATION 417

  • 17.1 Fundamentals of gravity dams on soil foundation 417
  • 17.2 Schemes for the underground contour of the dam 419
  • 17.3 Determination of basic dimensions of underground contour 421
  • 17.4 Construction of elements of the underground contour 423
  • 17.5 Construction of dam’s body 427
  • 17.6 Dimensioning and stability of gravity dams on soil foundation 435

18 ROLLER-COMPACTED CONCRETE GRAVITY DAMS 439

  • 18.1 Introduction 439
  • 18.2 Characteristics of roller-compacted concrete 441
  • 18.3 Types of roller-compacted concrete 443
  • 18.4 Trends in development of dams made of roller-compacted concrete 444
  • 18.5 Improving the water-impermeability of dams made of roller-compacted concrete 446
  • 18.6 Cost of dams made of roller-compacted concrete 448
  • 18.7 Examples of dams made of roller-compacted concrete 450
  • 18.8 Particularities of high dams of roller-compacted concrete 467

19 BUTTRESS DAMS 469

  • 19.1 Definition, classification and general conceptions 469
  • 19.2 Massive-head buttress dams 471
  • 19.3 Flat-slab buttress dams 477
  • 19.4 Multiple-arch buttress dams 482
  • 19.5 Conditions for application of buttress dams 491

20 ARCH DAMS 493

  • 20.1 In general on arch dams. Classification 493
  • 20.2 Development of arch dams through the centuries 496
  • 20.3 Methods of designing of arch dams 501
  • 20.3.1 Basic Design 501
  • 20.3.2 Arch dams with double curvature 508
  • 20.3.3 Form of arches in plan and adaptation to ground conditions 516
  • 20.4 Structural details of arch dams 520
  • 20.5 Static analysis of arch dams 525
  • 20.5.1 Method of independent arches. 526
  • 20.5.2 Method of central cantilever 530
  • 20.5.3 The Trial-Load Method 533
  • 20.5.4 The Finite Element Method 534
  • 20.5.5 The Experimental Method 535

21 DYNAMIC STABILITY OF CONCRETE DAMS 538

  • 21.1 Earthquake effects on concrete dams 538
  • 21.2 Methods for dynamic analysis of concrete dams 539
  • 21.2.1 Linear analysis and response of the structure 541
  • 21.2.2 Nonlinear analysis and the response of the dam 542
  • 21.3 knowledge gained from practice and experiments 545

22 MONITORING AND SURVEILLANCE OF CONCRETE DAMS 548

  • 22.1 On monitoring, surveillance and instrumentation of concrete dams in general 548
  • 22.2 Monitoring by precise survey methods 548
  • 22.3 Surveillance with embedded instruments 552
  • 22.4 Automatization and computerization of monitoring 557

PART FOUR: Hydromechanical equipment and appurtenant
hydraulic structures

23 ON MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANT HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES IN GENERAL 563

  • 23.1 On hydromechanical equipment in general 563
  • 23.1.1 Introduction 563
  • 23.1.2 Classification of gates and valves 563
  • 23.1.3 Forces acting on gates and valves 564
  • 23.2 Mechanisms for lifting and lowering of the gates and valves. Service bridges 565
  • 23.3 Installation and service of gates and valves 567
  • 23.4 Appurtenant hydraulic structures 569
  • 23.4.1 Definition, function and capacity 569
  • 23.4.2 Classification of spillways and bottom outlets 571
  • 23.5 Evacuation of overflowing waters via a chute spillway 573
  • 23.6 Energy dissipation of the spillway jet 577
  • 23.7 Selection of type of spillway structure 585

24 SURFACE (CREST) GATES 587

  • 24.1 Basic schemes of surface (crest) gates 587
  • 24.2 Surface (crest) gates transferring water pressure to side walls or piers 590
  • 24.2.1 Ordinary plain metal gates 590
  • 24.2.2 Special plain gates 595
  • 24.2.3 Stop-log gates. 597
  • 24.2.4 Radial gates 597
  • 24.2.5 Roller gates 603
  • 24.3 Surface (crest) gates transferring the waterpressure to the gate sill 606
  • 24.3.1 Sector (drum) gates 606
  • 24.3.2 Flap gates 609
  • 24.3.3 Bear-trap gates 610
  • 24.3.4 Inflatable gates 612

25 HIGH-HEAD GATES AND VALVES 613

  • 25.1 General characteristics. Classification 613
  • 25.2 High-head gates transferring pressure to the structure directly through their supports 615
  • 25.2.1 Plain high-head gates 615
  • 25.2.2 Radial (taintor) high-head gates 619
  • 25.2.3 Diaphragm gate 623
  • 25.3 Valves transferring the pressure through the shell encasing the valve 624
  • 25.3.1 Waterworks valves type 624
  • 25.3.2 Disc-like or butterfly valves 626
  • 25.3.3 Cone dispersion valve 627
  • 25.3.4 Needle valves and spherical valves 628
  • 25.4 Cylindrical balanced high-head valves 629

26 SPILLWAYS PASSING THROUGH THE DAM’S BODY 631

  • 26.1 Crest spillways 631
  • 26.2 High-head spillway structures 639

27 SPILLWAYS OUTSIDE THE DAM’S BODY 647

  • 27.1 Frontal (ogee) spillway structure 647
  • 27.2 Side-channel spillway 656
  • 27.3 Shaft (morning glory) spillway 663
  • 27.4 Siphon spillways 675

28 BOTTOM OUTLET WORKS 679

  • 28.1 Basic assumptions on designing bottom outlet works 679
  • 28.2 Bottom outlet works in concrete dams 680
  • 28.3 Bottom outlet works in embankment dams 682

29 SPECIAL HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES 691

  • 29.1 Transport structures 691
  • 29.2 Hydraulic structures for the admission and protection of fish 696

30 RIVER DIVERSION DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HYDRAULIC SCHEME 703

  • 30.1 On river diversion during the construction of dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures in general 703
  • 30.2 Construction of the structures without river diversion from the parent river channel 704
  • 30.2.1 Method with damming of the construction (foundation) pit 704
  • 30.2.2 Method without damming of the construction pit 708
  • 30.3 Construction of the structures with river diversion from the river channel 710

PART FIVE: Hydraulic schemes

31 COMPOSING OF STRUCTURES IN RIVER HYDRAULIC SCHEMES 715

  • 31.1 Definition and classification of hydraulic schemes 715
  • 31.2 General conditions and principles for composing hydraulic schemes 716
  • 31.3 Characteristics of river hydraulic schemes for different water economy branches 717
  • 31.4 Aesthetic shaping of hydraulic schemes 720
  • 31.5 River hydraulic schemes without pressure head 723
  • 31.6 Low-head hydraulic schemes 724
  • 31.7 Medium-head river hydraulic schemes 725

32 HIGH-HEAD RIVER HYDRAULIC SCHEME 729

  • 32.1 High-head river hydraulic schemes on mountain rivers (Type I) 729
  • 32.2 High-head hydraulic schemes on middle and low parts of rivers 742
  • 32.3 Pumped-storage hydraulic scheme 747

33 RESERVOIRS 751

  • 33.1 Introduction 751
  • 33.2 Formation and safety of reservoirs 752
  • 33.2.1 Stability of reservoir banks 752
  • 33.2.2 Water-impermeability of the reservoir 756
  • 33.2.3 Seismicity of the ground in the zone of the reservoir 759
  • 33.2.4 Water absorption of the ground in the zone of the reservoir 761
  • 33.2.5 Evaporation 761
  • 33.2.6 Sediment accumulation 762
  • 33.3 Resettlement of population and relocation of structures 765
  • 33.4 Sports and recreational facilities 766

34 NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF HYDRAULIC SCHEMES AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 769

  • 34.1 Types of negative effects on the environment 769
  • 34.1.1 Changing the land into the area of the reservoir 770
  • 34.1.2 Change of the flow downstream of the dam 771
  • 34.1.3 Damming the migration paths of fish and wild animals 774
  • 34.1.4 Change in the surrounding landscape and the microclimate 774
  • 34.2 Social and ecological monitoring 776
  • 34.3 Environmental protection – selection of a solution with minimum negative effects on the environment 777

35 RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF HYDRAULIC SCHEMES 781

  • 35.1 Need for restoration and reconstruction 781
  • 35.2 Restoration of dams and hydraulic schemes 782
  • 35.3 Reconstruction of hydraulic schemes 789

REFERENCES 797

SUBJECT INDEX 817

INDEX OF DAMS 815

 

Author Bio(s)

Ljubomir Tanchev was born in 1945 in Prilep (Republic of Macedonia). He moved to Skopje in 1950 where he finished the primary and secondary school and graduated in Civil Engineering from the Sts Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje. He obtained his M.Sc. in 1980 and was awarded his Ph.D. on the subject of Numerical analysis of embankment dams from the same university in 1987. In 1978/79 he completed a post-graduate study at IHE in Delft, The Netherlands.

He began his career working in the laboratory for testing of materials of the CC "Mavrovo" (Skopje) as a research engineer between 1972 and 1977. Then he joined the Sts Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, as assistant. In 1988 he was appointed Assistant Professor, in 1992 Associate Professor and in 1996 Professor, covering the topics of Dams and Hydraulic Structures. He has been Head of the Department of Hydraulic Structures, vice-Dean and from October 1999 till October 2003 Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Sts Cyril and Methodius University. He retired in October 2010, but is still actively involved in a number of projects. Since 2004 he has been president of the Macedonian Committee on Large Dams, a member of ICOLD.

Over the last 25 years of practice, Professor Tanchev has been involved in many hydraulic engineering projects as designer, consultant, and supervisor. He has published more than 50 scientific works and is the author of three books, published in Macedonian: Static analysis of embankment dams (1989), Hydraulic structures (1992) and Dams and appurtenant hydraulic structures (1999). For his last book, Prof. Tanchev was awarded the Goce Delcev Prize, the highest state prize for achievement in the sciences.

 
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