The International Workshop on Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Increased Crop Productivity, Enhanced Human Health and Sustained Soil Fertility was held in June 2002 at ENSAM-INRA, Montpellier, France. The main goal of the workshop was to define research strategies for a Challenge Program initiative on Biological Nitrogen Fixation, and develop a pre-proposal based on the concept note submitted and approved by the CGIAR iSC. More than 35 participants from various scientific disciplines, research institutions and from four different continents (Africa, Asia, Americas and Europe) attended the workshop. This book, based on the proceedings of the workshop, takes a holistic approach to harnessing legume BNF technologies, starting from a socioeconomic perspective, and progressing to agronomic and genetic options, and bringing together innovative aspects and participatory research strategies.
I. Overview of Legume SNF Research Achievements in IARCs: Harnessing the Potentials of BNF for Poor Farmers: Technological, Policy and Institutional Constraints and Research Needs: B. Shiferaw, M.C.S. Bantilan and R. Serraj; Increasing the Role of Legumes in Smallholder Farming Systems-The Future Challenge: S. Twomlow; Biotechnology-based Contributions to Enhancing Legume Productivity in Resource-poor Areas: J.H. Crouch, H.K. Buhariwalla, M. Blair, E. Mace, J. Balaji and R. Serraj; Improvement of Legume Productivity and Role of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cropping Systems: Overcoming the Physiological and Agronomic Limitations: R. Serraj, J. Adu-Gyamfi, O.P. Rupela and J.J. Drevon; Improved Livelihoods from Legumes-A Review of BNF Research at the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas: R.S. Malhotra, T. Blake, A.M. Abd. El-Moneim, W. Erskine, A. Sarker, M.C. Saxena, R. Thomas and F.A. Afandi; Biological Nitrogen Fixation: A Key Input for Integrated Soil Fertility Management in the Tropics: CIAT-TSBFI Working Group on BNF; The Ability to Fix N is not the Only Key to Delivery of the Benefits of BNF to Farmers: Experience of IITA in the Savannas of Africa: R.J. Carsky, N. Sanginga, S. Schulz, B. Douthwaite, V.M. Manyong, J. Diels, B. Vanlauwe and J.D.H. Keatinge; Enhancement of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Grain Legumes: Selected Results from the FAO/IAEA Programme: G. Hardarson; Vegetable Legumes-A Source of Increased Productivity, Improved Soil Fertility and Nutritional Health: J. Friedrichsen�II. Future Prospects of Advanced Research on SNF in ARIs: The Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Trees in Agroforestry: A. Galiana, J.P. Bouillet and F. Ganry; Architecture and Maps of the Chickpea Genome: A Basis for Understanding Plant-Rhizobium Interactions: P. Winter, C. Staginnus, B. Huettel, R. Jungmann, T. Pfaff, A-M. Benko-Iseppon, S. Rakshit, S. Pinkert, M. Baum and G. Kahl; Fabamed Interdisciplinary Strategy to Improve Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation of Legumes in the Mediterranean Basin: J.J. Drevon, C. Abdelly, N. Amarger, E.A. Aouani, J. Aurag, M. Jebara, H. Gherbi, C. Lluch, H. Payre, O. Schump, B. Sifi and M. Trabels�III. Status of Legumes and SNF in South Asia and Africa: Exploring the Biological Potential of Indigenous African Legumes for Developing Agri-technologies and SMMEs to Alleviate Poverty in Rural Communities: F.D. Dakora and G.M. Mvalo; Nitrogen Fixation in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-A Multilocational Inoculation Trial in Senegal: N.F.D. Guene, A. Diouf and M. Gueye; Design, Development and Promotion of Soybean BNF Technology in Zimbabwe: Closing the Loop: S. Mpepereki and I. Pompi; Current Status of Food Legume Production and Use of Biological Nitrogen Fixation Technology in Ethiopia: Geletu Bejiga; Status, Constraints and Perspectives of Biological Nitrogen Fixation Technology in Egypt: Y.G. Yann; Institutional Learning: From BNF Technologies to BNF Innovation Systems: R.S. Raina, A.J. Hall and R.V. Sulaiman; Rhizobium Inoculation of Leguminous Oilseeds-Results of On-Farm and Farmers' Field Demonstrations in the ICAR Coordinated Project on BNF: D.L.N. Rao, T. Natarajan, K. Ilamurugu, R.S. Raut and A.K. Rawat; The Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Increasing Crop Production and Soil Fertility in Vietnam: P.V. Toan and H.D. Tuan; Status of Biological Nitrogen Fixation Research in the Philippines: J.E. Eusebio; Effect of Fertilizers on Nodulation and Growth of Samanea saman Merr in Presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi at Nursery Level: M.S. Rahman, M.A.U. Mridha, S.M.S. Huda, M.M. Haque and S.M.S. Haque�IV. The CP Pre-Proposal: Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Increased Crop Productivity, Enhanced Human Health and Sustained Soil Fertility BNF Challenge Program Pre-Proposal: R. Serraj, L. Hein, J.J. Drevon and K.E. Giller