Foam Extrusion

Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice

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ISBN 9781566768795
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Features

  • Covers all important areas of foam extrusion-from scientific basics to engineering practice
  • Brings together the experience of specialists from industry, research organizations and universities
  • Contains over 100 photographs, micrographs, flow charts and other schematics
  • Includes 50 supplementary data tables
  • Summary

    Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice combines the science of foam with the engineering of extrusion processes in one comprehensive volume, joining scientific principles and engineering practice. Starting with the fundamentals and then moving to phase separation, the text lays the scientific foundation in such a manner that the microscopic transition from a nucleus to a void (nucleation) and macroscopic movement from a void to an object (formation) are plausibly addressed. The last section of the book presents interesting foam extrusion developments, demonstrating how scientific findings can be applied to the engineering field, from principles to batch experimentation and continuous foaming. Each chapter concludes with a section of references for further study, and most include a nomenclature section and/or summary section as well. Drawing from the experience of the editor and the authors, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice captures the interesting evolution of foam extrusion, and offers a solid foundation for future developments. It is an informative guide for anyone involved with this field.

    Table of Contents

    INTRODUCTION
    Thermoplastic Foam
    Foam Extrusion
    Recent Developments
    Outline of the Book
    STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS OF GAS SOLUBILITY IN POLYMERS
    Introduction
    Thermodynamics
    Statistical Thermodynamics
    Methodology
    Experiment versus Theory
    Outlook
    RHEOLOGY OF THERMOPLASTIC FOAM EXTRUSION PROCESS
    Introduction
    Shear Rheology of Blowing Agent-Charged Polymeric Systems
    Extensional Rheology for Extrusion Foaming of Polymers
    Elongational Rheology of Blowing Agent-Charged Polymeric Systems
    Conclusion
    FOAM NUCLEATION IN GAS-DISPERSED POLYMERIC SYSTEMS
    Introduction
    Equilibrium Considerations
    Conventional Nucleation Theories
    Cavitation
    Foam Extrusion Nucleation
    Summary
    Nomenclature
    FOAM GROWTH IN POLYMERS
    Introduction
    Importance
    Literature Review: Cell Model
    Foam Growth Experiment
    Foam Growth Modeling
    Foam Growth Equations
    Boundary Conditions
    Theory versus Experiment
    Conclusions
    Nomenclature
    POLYMERIC FOAMING SIMULATION: BATCH AND CONTINUOUS
    Introduction
    Batch Foaming
    Continuous Foaming
    Conclusions
    Nomenclature
    PROCESS DESIGN FOR THERMOPLASTIC FOAM EXTRUSION
    Introduction
    High-Density Structural Foam Process
    Low-Density Foam Process
    Die Design Procedures for Foam Extrusion
    FOAM EXTRUSION MACHINERY FEATURES
    Preface Regarding Extruders for Foaming
    Basic Properties of Extruders
    Extruder Types, Support Devices, and Placement of Subprocesses
    General Extruder Observations
    MIXING DESIGN FOR FOAM EXTRUSION: ANALYSIS AND PRACTICES
    Introduction
    Thermoplastic Foam Extrusion Processes
    Mixing-Theories and Experiments
    Mixing Practices in Single and Twin-Screw Extruders
    Process Challenges
    Summary
    Nomenclature
    FOAMING AGENTS FOR FOAM EXTRUSION
    Introduction
    Physical Foaming Agents
    Chemical Foaming Agents
    CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF HIGH-DENSITY AND LOW-DENSITY MICROCELLULAR PLASTICS IN EXTRUSION
    Introduction
    Previous Studies on Batch and Semi-continuous Microcellular Processing
    Background on Microcellular Plastics Processing
    Formation of a Single Phase Polymer/Gas Solution
    Microcellular Nucleation Control
    Suppression of Cell Coalescence
    Promotion of Large Volume Expansion
    Experimental Set-Up
    Experiments and Discussion
    Summary and Conclusions
    Nomenclature
    FOAM EXTRUSION OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (PET)
    Introduction
    Review of PET Chemistry and Processing Characteristics
    Foaming with Physical Blowing Agents
    Foaming with Chemical Blowing Agents
    Conclusion

     
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