Biogeochemistry of Wetlands

Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: Science and Applications

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Features

  • Discusses the role that sediment redox-pH conditions play on metal speciation, availability, and transformations
  • Examines the role of microbial processes in sulfate reduction, denitirification, and methane production
  • Examines the adaptation of wetland plants to varying anaerobic soil conditions
  • Presents results from research studies conducted on the Florida Everglades and Louisiana’s Mississippi River deltaic plain

Summary

Wetland ecosystems maintain a fragile balance of soil, water, plant, and atmospheric components in order to regulate water flow, flooding, and water quality. Marginally covered in traditional texts on biogeochemistry or on wetland soils, Biogeochemistry of Wetlands is the first to focus entirely on the biological, geological, physical, and chemical processes that affect these critical habitats.

This book offers an in-depth look at the chemical and biological cycling of nutrients, trace elements, and toxic organic compounds in wetland soil and water column as related to water quality, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse gases. It details the electrochemistry, biochemical processes, and transformation mechanisms for the elemental cycling of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Additional chapters examine the fate and chemistry of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds in wetland environments. The authors emphasize the role of redox-pH conditions, organic matter, microbial-mediated processes that drive transformation in wetlands, plant responses and adaptation to wetland soil conditions. They also analyze how excess water, sediment water, and atmospheric change relate to elemental biogeochemical cycling.

Delivering an in-depth scientific examination of the natural processes that occur in wetland ecosystems, Biogeochemistry of Wetlands comprises a key perspective on the environmental impact of pollutants and the role freshwater and coastal wetlands play in global climate change.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Basic Concepts and Terminology
Chemistry
Microbiology and Biochemistry
Isotopes
Terminology in Soil Science
Units
Biogeochemical Characteristics of Wetlands
Types of Wetlands
Wetland Hydrology
Wetland Soils
Wetland Vegetation
Biogeochemical Features of Wetlands
Types of Wetland/Hydric Soils
Field Indicators of Hydric Soils
Electrochemical Properties
Theoretical Relationships
Measurement of Eh
Eh–pH Relationships
Buffering of Redox Potential (Poise)
Measurement of Redox Potentials
pH
Redox Couples in Wetlands
Redox Gradients in Soils
Microbial Fuel Cells
Specific Conductance
Carbon
Major Components of Carbon Cycle in Wetlands
Organic Matter Accumulation
Characteristics of Detritus and Soil Organic Matter
Decomposition
Organic Matter Turnover
Regulators of Organic Matter Decomposition
Environmental and Ecological Significance
Functions of Organic Matter in Soils
Oxygen
Oxygen–H2O Redox Couple
Soil Gases
Sources of Oxygen
Aerobic–Anaerobic Interfaces
Oxygen Consumption
Adaptation of Plants to Soil Anaerobiosis
Distribution of Wetland Plants
Mechanisms of Flood Tolerance
Mechanisms of Oxygen Movement in Wetland Plants
Oxygen Release by Plants
Measurement of Radial Oxygen Loss
Soil Phytotoxic Accumulation Effects on Plant Growth
Oxidizing Power of Plant Roots
Effect of Intensity and Capacity of Soil Reduction on Wetland Plant Functions .000
Nitrogen
Forms of Nitrogen
Major Storage Compartments
Redox Transformations of Nitrogen
Mineralization of Organic Nitrogen
Ammonia Adsorption–Desorption
Ammonia Fixation
Ammonia Volatilization
Nitrification
Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation
Nitrate Reduction
Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen Assimilation by Vegetation
Nitrogen Processing by Wetlands
Phosphorous
Phosphorus Accumulation in Wetlands
Phosphorus Forms in Water Column and Soil
Inorganic Phosphorus
Phosphorus Sorption by Soils
Organic Phosphorus
Phosphorus Uptake and Storage in Biotic Communities
Mineralization of Organic Phosphorus
Biotic and Abiotic Interactions on Phosphorus Mobilization
Phosphorus Exchange between Soil and Overlying Water Column .000
Phosphorus Memory by Soils and Sediments
Biogeochemistry of Iron and Manganese
Storage and Distribution
Eh–pH Relationships
Reduction of Iron and Manganese
Oxidation of Iron and Manganese
Mobility of Iron and Manganese
Ecological Significance
Sulfur
Major Storage Compartments
Forms of Sulfur
Oxidation–Reduction of Sulfur
Assimilatory Sulfate and Elemental Sulfur Reduction
Mineralization of Organic Sulfur
Electron Acceptor—Reduction of Inorganic Sulfur
Electron Donor—Oxidation of Sulfur Compounds
Biogenic Emission of Reduced Sulfur Gases
Sulfur–Metal Interactions
Sulfi de Toxicity
Exchange between Soil and Water Column
Sulfur Sinks
Metals/Metalloids
Factors Governing Metal Availability and Transformation .000
Mercury—Methyl Mercury
Arsenic
Chemical Oxidation and Reduction of Arsenic
Copper
Zinc
Selenium
Chromium
Cadmium
Lead
Nickel
Toxic Organic Compounds
Biotic Pathways
Metabolism of Organic Compounds
Plant and Microbial Uptake
Abiotic Pathways
Regulators
Soil and Floodwater Exchange Processes
Advective Flux
Diffusive Flux
Bioturbation
Wind Mixing and Resuspension
Exchange of Dissolved Solutes between Soil/Sediment and the Water Column .000
Sediment Transport Processes
Vegetative Flux/Detrital Export
Air–Water Exchange
40 Biogeochemical Regulation of Exchange Processes
Biogeochemical Indicators
Concept of Indicators
Guidelines for Indicator Development
Levels of Indicators
Wetland Ecosystem Reference Conditions
Sampling Protocol and Design
Data Analysis
Wetlands and Global Climate Change
Potential Impact of Global Change to Wetlands
Methane
Nitrous Oxide
Carbon Sequestration
Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Coastal Wetlands
Freshwater Wetlands: The Everglades
Everglades Wetlands
Nutrient Loads and Ecological Alternations
Biogeochemical Cycles
Restoration and Recovery
Coastal Wetlands: Mississippi River Deltaic Plain Coastal Marshes, Louisiana
Biogeography and Geology of Louisiana Coastal Wetlands
Coastal Wetland Loss
Case Studies
Impact of Flooding and Saltwater Intrusion on Louisiana Coastal Vegetation
Carbon Cycling
Nitrogen Cycling
Sulfur Cycling
Case Studies of Factors Governing the Fate of Toxic Organic Compounds and Pollutants in the Louisiana Coastal Wetland
 
Advances in Biogeochemistry
Biogeochemical Processes
Algal and Microbial Interactions
Vegetation and Microbial Interactions
Modern Tools to Study Biogeochemical Cycles
Synthesis: Mechanistic and Statistical Models
Future Directions and Perspectives
References
Index
*Each chapter contains an Introduction, Summary, References, and suggestions for Further Readings. Most chapters also contain Study Questions.

Editorial Reviews

"… represents the new generation of books that comprehensively describe the principles and advances in the field of wetland science … . I strongly recommend this book … chocked full of well-designed and well-thought out figures. … the authors, with nearly a century of research experience between them, are among the giants in the field of wetland biogeochemistry … . You will enjoy using and referencing this book … I know I will."

– Christopher Craft, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University in Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2009

 
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