Concise Encyclopedia of Crop Improvement

Concise Encyclopedia of Crop Improvement: Institutions, Persons, Theories, Methods, and Histories

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Summary

How were today’s complex approaches to improving crops developed?

The quest for a steady food supply sparked plant breeding attempts over 12,000 years ago. The Concise Encyclopedia of Crop Improvement is a comprehensive resource explaining the development of crop improvement methods over the centuries. This extensive history of development is examined in detail, including influential individuals in the field, plant cultivation in Asia since the Neolithic time, techniques used in the Old World, and cropping in ancient America. The advance of scientific plant breeding in the twentieth century is extensively explored, including hybrid breeding, biotechnological improvement, and genetic manipulation.

The Concise Encyclopedia of Crop Improvement focuses on the full range of social and scientific advances in crop development. This concise yet detailed overview discusses leaders in the field, theories, achievements, disputes, and institutions that were crucial in the evolution of crop improvement, breeding, and plant genetics. Individual chapters discuss crop improvement within a specific time frame or geographic area as well as providing separate sections describing specific types or advances of breeding or scientific method. Numerous helpful tables, figures, and photos are included for idea clarity and illustration, and include comprehensive references.

Topics in the Concise Encyclopedia of Crop Improvement include:

  • plant breeding development over the past 10,000 years
  • Arabic agriculture
  • Medieval and Renaissance agriculture in Europe
  • Mendel’s laws—the beginning of genetic research
  • breeding by selection
  • pure lines and improvement of self-pollinated crops
  • positive and negative mass selection
  • backcross breeding
  • synthetics
  • mutation breeding
  • induced mutation
  • somaclonal variation by in vitro culture
  • much, much more

The Concise Encyclopedia of Crop Improvement is essential for governmental, public, and academic libraries. This superb reference is a perfect desktop resource for students, educators, researchers, seed producers, historians, and anyone interested in agronomy, plant breeding, genetics, biotechnology, or biology.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • User’s Guide
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
  • Chapter 2. Crop Improvement Since 10,000 Years
  • 2.1. The Old World
  • 2.1.1. Sumeria
  • 2.1.2. Mesopotamia and Babylonia
  • 2.1.3. Judea
  • 2.1.4. Egypt
  • 2.2. Plant Cultivation in Asia Since Neolithic Times
  • 2.2.1. China
  • 2.2.2. India
  • 2.3. Cropping Plants in Ancient America
  • 2.4. The Greek and Roman World
  • 2.5. Arabic Agriculture
  • 2.6. Medieval and Renaissance Agriculture in Europe
  • 2.7. Plant Breeding by Experience During the 17th through 19th Centuries
  • 2.8 Interest
  • Chapter 3. MENDEL’S Contribution to Inheritance and Breeding
  • 3.1. Rediscovery of Mendel’s Laws—Beginning of Genetic Research
  • 3.2. Scientific Plant Breeding with the Beginning of the 20th Century
  • 3.2.1. Breeding by Selection
  • 3.2.2. Cross and Combination Breeding
  • 3.2.3. Pure Lines and Improvement of Self-Pollinated Crops
  • 3.2.4. Positive and Negative Mass Selection
  • 3.2.5. Pedigree Selection
  • 3.2.6. Bulk Selection
  • 3.2.7. Backcross Breeding
  • 3.2.8. Single-Seed Decent
  • 3.2.9. Near-Isogenic Lines As a Breeding Tool
  • 3.2.10. Polycross Method
  • 3.2.11. Shuttle Breeding
  • 3.3. Resistance Breeding
  • 3.4. Hybrid Breeding
  • 3.4.1. Synthetics
  • 3.5. Mutation Breeding
  • 3.5.1. Induced Mutation by Mutagens
  • 3.5.2. Somaclonal Variation by In Vitro Culture
  • 3.6. Polyploidy and Breeding
  • 3.7. Chromosome Manipulations As a Tool for Breeding and Research
  • 3.7.1. Aneuploids
  • 3.7.2. Chromosome Additions
  • 3.7.3. Chromosome Substitutions and Translocations
  • 3.7.4. Chromosome-Mediated Gene Transfer
  • 3.8. Utilization of Haploids in Breeding
  • 3.8.1. Doubled Haploids
  • 3.8.2. Dihaploids
  • 3.9. Grafting Methods
  • 3.10. Quantitative Terms in Breeding and Genetics
  • 3.10.1. Plot design, Field Equipment, and Laboratory Testing
  • 3.10.2. Statistics in Breeding
  • 3.10.3. Bioinformatics
  • Chapter 4. Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering, and Plant Improvement
  • 4.1. In Vitro Techniques
  • 4.1.1. Embryo Rescue
  • 4.1.2. Cell Fusion and Somatic Hybridization
  • 4.1.3. Virus Freeing
  • 4.1.4. Micropropagation
  • 4.1.5. In Vitro Conservation of Germplasm
  • 4.2. Molecular Techniques in Plant Breeding
  • 4.2.1. Marker-Assisted Selection
  • 4.2.1.1. Plant Genomics
  • 4.2.2. Transgenic Crop Plants
  • 4.2.2.1. Future Transgenic Crop Plants and Genetic Engineering
  • 4.2.2.2. “Farmerceuticals” and Other Exotic Characters of Modern Crop Plants
  • 4.2.2.3. Prospects
  • Chapter 5. Intellectual Property Rights, Plant Variety Protection, and Patenting
  • Chapter 6. In the Service of CERES—A Gallery of Breeders, Geneticists and People Associated with Crop Improvement and Plant Breeding
  • Notes
  • Glossary
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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