Network-on-Chip: The Next Generation of System-on-Chip Integration

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Features

    • Provides a homogenous overview of the basic topics related to NoC-based design
    • Contains a full architectural design of NoC components verified through implementation in industrial CAD tools
    • Offers up-to-date information containing a comprehensive design and analysis component, and algorithms
    • Includes topics in reconfigurable NoCs, 3-D NoCs, industrial NoCs, and low-power variants
    • Presents a set of exercises (both theoretical and practical) at the end of each chapter

    Summary

    Addresses the Challenges Associated with System-on-Chip Integration

    Network-on-Chip: The Next Generation of System-on-Chip Integration examines the current issues restricting chip-on-chip communication efficiency, and explores Network-on-chip (NoC), a promising alternative that equips designers with the capability to produce a scalable, reusable, and high-performance communication backbone by allowing for the integration of a large number of cores on a single system-on-chip (SoC). This book provides a basic overview of topics associated with NoC-based design: communication infrastructure design, communication methodology, evaluation framework, and mapping of applications onto NoC. It details the design and evaluation of different proposed NoC structures, low-power techniques, signal integrity and reliability issues, application mapping, testing, and future trends.

    Utilizing examples of chips that have been implemented in industry and academia, this text presents the full architectural design of components verified through implementation in industrial CAD tools. It describes NoC research and developments, incorporates theoretical proofs strengthening the analysis procedures, and includes algorithms used in NoC design and synthesis. In addition, it considers other upcoming NoC issues, such as low-power NoC design, signal integrity issues, NoC testing, reconfiguration, synthesis, and 3-D NoC design.

    This text comprises 12 chapters and covers:

    • The evolution of NoC from SoC—its research and developmental challenges
    • NoC protocols, elaborating flow control, available network topologies, routing mechanisms, fault tolerance, quality-of-service support, and the design of network interfaces
    • The router design strategies followed in NoCs
    • The evaluation mechanism of NoC architectures
    • The application mapping strategies followed in NoCs
    • Low-power design techniques specifically followed in NoCs
    • The signal integrity and reliability issues of NoC
    • The details of NoC testing strategies reported so far
    • The problem of synthesizing application-specific NoCs
    • Reconfigurable NoC design issues
    • Direction of future research and development in the field of NoC

    Network-on-Chip: The Next Generation of System-on-Chip Integration covers the basic topics, technology, and future trends relevant to NoC-based design, and can be used by engineers, students, and researchers and other industry professionals interested in computer architecture, embedded systems, and parallel/distributed systems.

    Table of Contents

    Introduction

    System-on-Chip Integration and Its Challenges

    SoC to Network-on-Chip: A Paradigm Shift

    Research Issues in NoC Development

    Existing NoC Examples

    Summary

    References

    Interconnection Networks in Network-on-Chip

    Introduction

    Network Topologies

    Switching Techniques

    Routing Strategies

    Flow Control Protocol

    Quality-of-Service Support

    NI Module

    Summary

    References

    Architecture Design of Network-on-Chip

    Introduction

    Switching Techniques and Packet Format

    Asynchronous FIFO Design

    GALS Style of Communication

    Wormhole Router Architecture Design

    VC Router Architecture Design

    Adaptive Router Architecture Design

    Summary

    References

    Evaluation of Network-on-Chip Architectures

    Evaluation Methodologies of NoC

    Traffic Modeling

    Selection of Channel Width and Flit Size

    Simulation Results and Analysis of MoT Network with WH Router

    Impact of FIFO Size and Placement in Energy and Performance of a Network

    Performance and Cost Comparison of MoT with Other NoC Structures Having WH Router under Self-Similar Traffic

    Simulation Results and Analysis of MoT Network with Virtual Channel Router

    Performance and Cost Comparison of MoT with Other NoC Structures Having VC Router

    Limitations of Tree-Based Topologies

    Summary

    References

    Application Mapping on Network-on-Chip

    Introduction

    Mapping Problem

    ILP Formulation

    Constructive Heuristics for Application Mapping

    Constructive Heuristics with Iterative Improvement

    Mapping Using Discrete PSO

    Summary

    References

    Low-Power Techniques for Network-on-Chip

    Introduction

    Standard Low-Power Methods for NoC Routers

    Standard Low-Power Methods for NoC Links

    System-Level Power Reduction

    Summary

    References

    Signal Integrity and Reliability of Network-on-Chip

    Introduction

    Sources of Faults in NoC Fabric

    Permanent Fault Controlling Techniques

    Transient Fault Controlling Techniques

    Unified Coding Framework

    Energy and Reliability Trade-Off in Coding Technique

    Summary

    References

    Testing of Network-on- Chip Architectures

    Introduction

    Testing Communication Fabric

    Testing Cores

    Summary

    References

    Application-Specific Network-on-Chip Synthesis

    Introduction

    ASNoC Synthesis Problem

    Literature Survey

    System-Level Floorplanning

    Custom Interconnection Topology and Route Generation

    ASNoC Synthesis with Flexible Router Placement

    Summary

    References

    Reconfigurable Network-on-Chip Design

    Introduction

    Literature Review

    Local Reconfiguration Approach

    Topology Reconfiguration

    Link Reconfiguration

    Summary

    References

    Three-Dimensional Integration of Network-on-Chip

    Introduction

    3-D Integration: Pros and Cons

    Design and Evaluation of 3-D NoC Architecture

    Summary

    References

    Conclusions and Future Trends

    Conclusions

    Future Trends

    Comparison between Alternatives

    References

    Index

    Author Bio(s)

    Santanu Kundu received his BTech in instrumentation engineering from Vidyasagar University, Medinipur, West Bengal, India, in 2002. He received his MTech in instrumentation and electronics engineering from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, in 2006. Immediately after that he joined the electronics and electrical communication engineering department at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. He received his PhD in 2011. His research interests include network-on-chip architecture design in 2D and 3D environments, performance and cost evaluation, signal integrity in nanometer regime, fault-tolerant schemes, and power–performance–reliability trade-off. He is currently a system-on-chip (SoC) design engineer at LSI India R&D Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

    Santanu Chattopadhyay received his BE in computer science and technology from Calcutta University (BE College), Kolkata, West Bengal, in 1990. In 1992 and 1996, he received his MTech in computer and information technology and PhD in computer science and engineering, respectively, both from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. He is currently a professor in the electronics and electrical communication engineering department at the IIT, Kharagpur. He has contributed to more than 100 publications in refereed international journals and conferences. He has also coauthored and written several textbooks, and is a member of the editorial board of the journal IET Circuits, Devices and Systems.

    Editorial Reviews

    "What makes this book special as compared to the current literature in the field is that it provides a complete picture of NoC architectures. In fact, current books in the context of NoCs are usually specific and presuppose a basic knowledge of NoC architectures. Conversely, this book provides a complete guide for both unskilled readers and researchers working in the area, to acquire not only the basic concepts but also the advanced techniques for improving power, cost and performance metrics of the on-chip communication system."
    —Maurizio Palesi, Kore University, Italy