Unit and Ubiquitous Internet of Things

Unit and Ubiquitous Internet of Things

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Features

    • Introduces essential IoT concepts from the perspectives of mapping and interaction between the physical world and cyber world
    • Outlines a fundamental architecture for future IoT, based on the IoT layered model, topological structure, various existence forms, and corresponding logical relationships
    • Presents specific case studies that illustrate various application scenarios
    • Establishes an IoT technology system based on the knowledge of IoT scientific problems
    • Provides an overview of core technologies, including basic connotation, development status, and open challenges

    Summary

    Although the Internet of Things (IoT) will play a key role in the development of next generation information, network, and communication technologies, many are still unclear about what makes IoT different from similar concepts.

    Answering fundamental questions about IoT architectures and models, Unit and Ubiquitous Internet of Things introduces essential IoT concepts from the perspectives of mapping and interaction between the physical world and the cyber world. It addresses key issues such as strategy and education, particularly around unit and ubiquitous IoT technologies. Supplying a new perspective on IoT, the book covers emerging trends and presents the latest progress in the field. It also:

    • Outlines a fundamental architecture for future IoT together with the IoT layered model
    • Describes various topological structures, existence forms, and corresponding logical relationships
    • Establishes an IoT technology system based on the knowledge of IoT scientific problems
    • Provides an overview of the core technologies, including basic connotation, development status, and open challenges

    The book examines ubiquitous sensing, networking, and communications, as well as information management involved in unit IoT. It describes global IoT applications and includes coverage of ubiquitous, local, industrial, national, and transnational IoT. Presenting detailed case studies that illustrate various application scenarios, the text considers the main IoT supporting technologies including resource management, loop control in actuation, session management, space-time consistency, security and privacy, energy management, spectrum management, nanotechnology, quantum technology, and big data.

    Table of Contents

    Introduction
    IoT Concept
    Related Concepts to IoT
    The Intrinsic Characteristics of IoT
    IoT Development and Application
    Future IoT Vision
    References

    Architecture and Fundamentals
    Some Research on IoT Architecture
    Ubiquitous IoT (U2IoT) Architecture
         Unit IoT Definition and Its Architecture Design 
         Ubiquitous IoT Definition and Its Architecture Design
    Some Layered Models for IoT 
         Three-Layer Model 
         Four-Layer Model 
         Eight-Layer Model 
         Discussion on the above Layered Models
    Layered Model Proposed and Social Attributes Discussion for U2IoT 
         Layered Model Designed for U2IoT
         Layer Description and Social Attributes for Unit IoT 
         Layer Description and Social Attributes for Ubiquitous IoT
    IoT Development Phases Summary and Discussion 
         Early Stage 
         Unit IoT Stage
         Industrial/Local IoT Stage
         National IoT
    Science Category and Supporting Technologies for IoT 
         Science Category Based on Cyber-Physical-Social Aspects
         Supporting Technologies
    Conclusion
    References

    Unit Internet of Things
    Introduction
    Sensors and Actuators
         Sensors
         Actuators
    Ubiquitous Sensing
         Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
         Bluetooth
         Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) 
         Ultra-Wideband (UWB) 
         ZigBee 
         Infrared Data Transmission
    Networking and Communications 
         Mobile Communication Technology 
              Third-Generation Technology (3G) 
              Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) 
              Fourth-Generation Technology (4G) 
         Next-Generation Internet Technology
    Management and Data Centers (M&DCs) 
         Pervasive Management 
              Object/Entity Management 
              Network Management 
              Service Management 
         Data Fusion and Data Mining
    Case Study for Unit IoT 
         Identification 
              Asset Management 
              Biometrics Identification 
              E-Passport 
         Information Aggregation
              Smart Home 
              Satellite Remote Sensing System 
         Safety Awareness 
              Bird Strike Avoidance Radar System 
              River Navigation Safety System 
         Monitoring and Control 
              Precision Manufacturing System
    Conclusion
    References

    Ubiquitous Internet of Things
    Introduction
    Local Internet of Things 
         Local IoT Concept
         Main Characteristics of Local IoT 
         Case Study: Smart City
         Case Study: Logistics Network of China
    Pearl River Delta (PRD)
    Industrial Internet of Things 
         Industrial IoT Concept 
         Main Characteristics of Industrial IoT 
              Geographical Dispersion 
              Multiuser Orientation 
         An Example: Smart Grid
    National Internet of Things 
         National IoT Concept 
         National Development Planning 
         Management of National IoT
    Transnational Internet of Things Application 
         Description 
         An Example: Transnational Logistics IoT in ACFTA
    Global Application IoT and a Typical Example 
         Description 
         Case Study: Global Logistics IoT
    Conclusion and Discussion
    References

    Resource Management
    Introduction
    Object Coding and Resolving 
         Object Coding Discussion 
              Coding for ID Objects 
              Coding for nID Objects 
              Combined Coding for Objects with ID and nID 
         Resolving Discussion for nID Objects
              Space-Time Information Resolving 
              Unique Attributes (UA) Resolving 
              Nonunique Attributes (NA) Resolving
    Resource Naming
    Resource Addressing
    Resource Discovery
    Resource Allocation
    Resource Management Scheme in U2IoT 
         Context Information
         Resource Management Scheme for U2IoT
              Resource Management in Unit IoT 
              Resource Management in Ubiquitous IoT
    Conclusion
    References

    Loop Control in Actuation
    References

    Session Management
    Introduction
    Single-Session Management in IoT
    Multiple-Session Management in IoT
    Challenges
    References

    Space-Time Consistency and Location Privacy
    Introduction
    Space-Time Registration in Unit IoT 
         Time Synchronization
         Object Localization 
         Time Registration for Unit IoT 
         Space Registration for Unit IoT
    Space-Time Registration for Ubiquitous IoT 
         Time Registration for Ubiquitous IoT 
         Space Registration for Ubiquitous IoT
    Space-Time Consistency Discussion in U2IoT
    A Case Study in an Airport
    Location Privacy 
         Main Characteristics of Location Privacy 
         Location Privacy-Preserving Mechanism 
              Privacy Policy 
              Anonymity and Pseudonymity
              Obfuscation 
              Challenges and Open Issues
    Conclusion
    References

    Security and Privacy
    Introduction
    Security Challenges in U2IoT 
         Security Requirements
              CIA Triad 
              Authority
              Nonrepudiation 
                   Privacy Preservation 
         Security Attacks 
              Gathering 
              Imitation
              Blocking
              Privacy Disclosure
    The Security Framework for U2IoT 
         Information Security 
         Physical Security 
         Management Security
    A Proposed Hybrid Authentication and Hierarchical Authorization Scheme 
         The Security Protocol Suite in Unit IoT (UnSPs) 
              The In-Group Hybrid Authentication Protocol in UnSPs
              The Out-Group Centralized Authorization Protocol in UnSPs
         The Security Protocol Suite in Ubiquitous IoT (UbSPs) 
         The Centralized Authentication Protocol in UbSPs 
         The Distributed Authority Transfer Protocol in UbSPs 
         The Centralized Authority Transfer Protocol in UbSPs 
         The Distributed Authority Sharing Protocol in UbSPs 
         Security Analysis 
              Authentication 
              Authorization   
              Privacy Preservation
    Entity Activity Cycle–Based Security Solution 
         In the Preactive Phase 
         In the Active Phase 
              Authentication 
              Access Control 
              Secure Routing 
              Advanced Signature 
              Zero-Knowledge Proof 
              Data Aggregation 
         In the Postactive Phase 
              Intrusion Detection 
              Intrusion Tolerance and Threshold Cryptography
    Conclusion
    References

    Energy Management
    Introduction
    Energy Management in Unit IoT 
         Energy Supply Management in Unit IoT
         Energy Demand Management in Unit IoT 
         Supply-Demand Balance Management in Unit IoT
    Energy Management in Ubiquitous IoT
    Conclusion and Discussion
    References

    Spectrum Management
    Introduction
    Spectrum Management System, Equipment, and Technology
         National Spectrum Management System 
         Spectrum Monitoring and Management Equipment
         Technological Innovation and Spectrum Management
    The Vision, Challenge, and Scheme of Spectrum Management in IoT
         Spectrum Management Visions and Challenges 
         Spectrum Management Scheme in IoT 
              Spectrum Management in Unit IoT 
              Spectrum Management in Ubiquitous IoT
    Conclusion
    References

    Nanotechnology
    Introduction
    Nanotechnology in Ubiquitous Sensing 
         Nanotechnology-Based New Sensors and Actuators 
         Nanoscale Sensor Networks
    Nanotechnology in Communication Networks
         High-Performance Routing and Switching Devices 
         Radio Frequency (RF) Communication
    Nanotechnology in High-Performance Computing
    References

    Quantum Technology
    Introduction
    Quantum Technology: Driving IoT Development 
         Making Sensor Networks More Powerful
         Making Communication More Secure
         Making Massive Data Processing More Efficient
    References

    Big Data
    Introduction
    Technology and Application 
         Some Typical Technologies for Big Data 
         Application Platform and Solution
    Conclusion
    References
    Index

    Author Bio(s)

    Huansheng Ning, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University. He was born in Anhui, China, and received a B.S. from Anhui University, China, and a Ph.D. from Beihang University, China. From 2002 to 2003, Dr. Ning worked at Aisino Corporation, Beijing, China. From 2004 to 2005, he was a post-Ph.D. at Beihang University. He has presided over several research projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program), and other organizations. He has published many papers and books on radio frequency identification (RFID) and Internet of Things (IoT). Dr. Ning serves as an editor on Advances in Internet of Things (2012-Present), is a guest editor for the Journal of Universal Computer Science Special Issue on Internet of Things (JUCS), and coeditor for The Internet of Things: From RFID to the Next-Generation Pervasive Networked Systems (Taylor & Francis Group). He also serves as a chair or program committee member for international conferences/workshops, for example, program chair (IEEE iThings 2012), program committee member (AMT 2012), K15947. Internet of Things and CPS track chair (IEEE CIT’12), workshop chair (IEEE iThings 2011), and general chair (UMES 2011). Dr. Ning’s current research focuses on Internet of Things, electromagnetic sensing, and aviation security.

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