Critical Infrastructure System Security and Resiliency

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Features

    • Surveys current resilience assessment methods and evaluates their limitations and benefits
    • Provides a total, integrated system approach to security risk assessment that can be reproduced for various critical infrastructure assessments
    • Examines the security functions of detection, delay, and response, and the integration of these functions required for an effective protection system
    • Presents optional features that can be added to a system to reduce risk and increase the protection system's effectiveness

    Summary

    Security protections for critical infrastructure nodes are intended to minimize the risks resulting from an initiating event, whether it is an intentional malevolent act or a natural hazard. With an emphasis on protecting an infrastructure's ability to perform its mission or function, Critical Infrastructure System Security and Resiliency presents a practical methodology for developing an effective protection system that can either prevent undesired events or mitigate the consequences of such events.

    Developed at Sandia National Labs, the authors’ analytical approach and methodology enables decision-makers and security experts to perform and utilize risk assessments in a manner that extends beyond the theoretical to practical application. These protocols leverage expertise in modeling dependencies—optimizing system resiliency for effective physical protection system design and consequence mitigation.

    The book begins by focusing on the design of protection strategies to enhance the robustness of the infrastructure components. The authors present risk assessment tools and necessary metrics to offer guidance to decision-makers in applying sometimes limited resources to reduce risk and ensure operational resiliency.

    Our critical infrastructure is vast and made up of many component parts. In many cases, it may not be practical or affordable to secure every infrastructure node. For years, experts—as a part of the risk assessment process—have tried to better identify and distinguish higher from lower risks through risk segmentation. In the second section of the book, the authors present examples to distinguish between high and low risks and corresponding protection measures. In some cases, protection measures do not prevent undesired events from occurring. In others, protection of all infrastructure components is not feasible. As such, this section describes how to evaluate and design resilience in these unique scenarios to manage costs while most effectively ensuring infrastructure system protection.

    With insight from the authors’ decades of experience, this book provides a high-level, practical analytical framework that public and private sector owners and operators of critical infrastructure can use to better understand and evaluate infrastructure security strategies and policies. Strengthening the entire homeland security enterprise, the book presents a significant contribution to the science of critical infrastructure protection and resilience.

    Table of Contents

    SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT
    Introduction to Security Risk Assessment
    Security Risk Assessment
    Protection System Robustness
    Security System Resiliency
    System Approach for Security Risk Assessment
    Determine Undesired Events, Associated Critical Assets,
    and Available Resources
    Threat Analysis
    Assess Likelihood of Initiating Event
    Estimate Protection System Effectiveness
    Assess Consequences for Undesired Event
    Estimate Security Risk
    Upgrade the Protection System to Be Robust against Undesired Event
    Upgrade Security System to Be Resilient for Undesired Event
    Undesired Events, Associated Critical Assets, and Available Resources
    Critical Assets
    Logic Model
    Threat Analysis
    Malevolent Threats
    Type of Adversary
    Adversary Capability
    Design Basis Threat
    Natural Hazards
    Hurricane
    Earthquake
    Tornado
    Flood
    Accidents
    Likelihood of Initiating Events
    Malevolent Threat
    Outsider Threat
    Insider Threat
    Natural Hazard Threat
    Accident Threat
    Assess Consequences and Responses for Undesired Event
    Reference Table for Consequences
    Estimating Consequence Level for Undesired Events
    Assessment of Protection System Effectiveness
    Assessment of Protection System Effectiveness for Malevolent Threat
    Adversary Scenarios
    Effective Physical Protection System for the Malevolent Threat
    Physical Protection System Effectiveness Assessment
    Physical Protection System Effectiveness Assessment—Example
    Protection System Effectiveness against Blast Attacks
    Protection System Effectiveness for Blast Attacks Assessment—Example
    Mitigation of the Insider Threat
    Cyber Protection System Effectiveness
    Cyber Functions
    Cyber Protection System Effectiveness Assessment—Example
    Effectiveness for Natural Hazards
    Protection System Effectiveness Assessment for Natural
    Hazards—Example
    Protection System Effectiveness for Accidents
    Protection System Effectiveness Assessment for Accidents—Example
    Estimate Security Risk
    System Approach for Security Risk Assessment
    Determine Undesired Events, Associated Critical Assets, and Available Resources
    Threat Analysis
    Assess Likelihood of Initiating Event
    Estimate Protection System Effectiveness
    Assess Consequences for Undesired Event
    Estimate Security Risk
    Upgrade Protection System to Be Robust against Undesired Event
    Upgrade Security System to Be Resilient for Undesired Event
    EVALUATION AND DESIGN OF RESILIENT SYSTEMS
    Motivating Infrastructure Resilience Analysis
    Current State of Resilience Assessment
    Definitions of Resilience
    Domains
    Assessment Processes
    Structural Resilience Assessment Methodologies
    Performance-Based Measurement
    Hybrid Approaches
    Gaps and Limitations
    Infrastructure Resilience Analysis Methodology
    Definition of Resilience
    Measurement of Resilience Costs
    Systemic Impact
    Total Recovery Effort
    Resilience Cost Calculation
    Use and Interpretation of Recovery-Dependent Resilience
    Costs and Optimal Resilience Costs Quantities
    Additional Notes on Calculation of Resilience Costs
    Qualitative Structural Analysis
    Absorptive Capacity
    Adaptive Capacity
    Restorative Capacity
    Additional Notes on Resilience Capacities
    Applying the Infrastructure Resilience Analysis Methodology
    Case Studies Using the Infrastructure Resilience Analysis Framework
    Qualitative Resilience Analysis Case Study
    Define Systems
    Define Scenario
    Perform Structural Analysis
    Analysis Conclusions
    Quantitative Resilience Analysis Case Study
    Define Systems
    Define Scenario
    Define Metrics and Obtain Data
    Calculate Resilience Costs
    Perform Structural Analysis
    Case Study on Optimizing Resilient Recovery Strategies
    Define Systems
    Define Scenario
    Define Metrics
    Obtain Data and Calculate Resilience Costs
    Future Directions
    APPENDIX A: EXAMPLE USE OF FAULT TREES TO IDENTIFY CRITICAL ASSETS
    APPENDIX B: PHYSICAL PROTECTION FEATURES PERFORMANCE DATA
    INDEX

    Author Bio(s)

    Betty E. Biringer is a mathematician currently conducting specialized technical assessments and research in the national interest as a distinguished member of the technical staff at Sandia National Laboratories. As the former manager of the Security Risk Assessment Department, she provided oversight and technical guidance for Sandia’s modeling and simulation tools for physical security vulnerability analyses and risk assessments. Ms. Biringer was actively involved in the development and implementation of most of Sandia’s service-marked Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) tools for critical infrastructure elements, including dams, high-voltage electric power transmission, chemical facilities, communities, and energy. She has served as a subject matter expert for security risk on review panels for the Department of Homeland Security’s National Centers of Excellence. Her other primary research area is the development of methodologies for the assessment and mitigation of the insider threat.

    Dr. Eric D. Vugrin is currently a distinguished member of the technical staff in the Resilience and Regulatory Effects Department at Sandia National Laboratories. His primary research interest is the development of analytical tools and methods for infrastructure analysis. Most recently, his research has focused on capability development for vulnerability, consequence, and resilience analysis of chemical supply chains, transportation networks, electrical power systems, and other infrastructure networks. These efforts provided support and guidance to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Infrastructure Protection, Science and Technology, and Policy programs. Prior to his work in the area of infrastructure analysis, he performed risk analyses for complex systems as Sandia’s technical lead for Total Systems Performance Assessment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the world’s only certified, deep-underground repository for nuclear waste.

    Dr. Drake E. Warren was a senior member of technical staff at Sandia National Laboratories until he joined the RAND Corporation as an associate policy researcher in 2011. While at Sandia, he worked on projects across a range of homeland security and national security issues, including projects that assessed the economic impacts of disruptions to industries and infrastructure systems caused by hurricanes, climate change, and other disruptive events. He helped develop frameworks for assessing the resilience and criticality of infrastructure and economic systems and led studies directed toward improving foresight of national security challenges.