The Modern Theory of the Toyota Production System

The Modern Theory of the Toyota Production System: A Systems Inquiry of the World’s Most Emulated and Profitable Management System

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Features

  • Presents a completely new way of exploring Toyota's management system that integrates systems thinking with Lean implementation
  • Supplies an in-depth study of how Toyota has designed their management systems from an organizational system theory perspective
  • Explains that most organizations already have what it takes to succeed with TPS, what’s usually missing is balance

Summary

Numerous books have been written about Toyota's approach to workplace improvement; however, most describe Toyota's practices as case studies or stories. Designed to aid in the implementation of Lean manufacturing, The Modern Theory of the Toyota Production System: A Systems Inquiry of the World’s Most Emulated and Profitable Management System explains that your organization already has what it takes to succeed with TPS and what’s probably missing is balance.

Bridging the gap between implementation and theory, this text is the first of its kind to use systems theory to study how the pieces of the Toyota Production System (TPS) work together to achieve this much needed balance. Lean practitioners will learn how to use system theory to improve overall decision making when applying Lean or Toyota-like management systems.

Explaining that the glue that holds the pieces of TPS together is just as important as the pieces themselves, the book provides you with invaluable guidance in the implementation of Lean manufacturing from a management perspective. It outlines a blueprint to help you develop a clear understanding of how the pieces of TPS need to come together so you can achieve something greater than what’s possible with the individual pieces.

Table of Contents

Systems Theory and the Relation to TPS
Why Systems Theory for the Toyota Production System?
Why Systems Thinking Is Not Popular When Implementing TPS
Systems Theory Background
A Representation of Toyota’s TPS System Properties
     Holism and Roles
     Goal Seeking, Industrial Engineering, and Problem Solving
     Regulation and Jishuken
     Differentiation and Leadership
     Hierarchy and Hoshin Kanri
     Transformation, Change Management, and Kaizen
     Entropy and Human Resources
     Negative Entropy and Organizational Learning
     Requisite of Variety and Production Leveling
     Interrelationships and Supplier Development
     Equifinality, Multifinality, and Maintenance
Summary
References

The Property of Holism in TPS
System Property: Holism
Holism and the Toyota Production System
The Role Concept
The Difference between Roles and Job Descriptions
Role Prescriptions
Role Theory and Analysis
     Role Components and Features
The Emergent Properties of TPS: Teamwork
The Emergent Properties of TPS: Collaboration and Trust among Members
The Emergent Properties of TPS: Workplace Consistency
Summary
References

The Property of Goal Seeking in TPS, Part 1
System Property: Goal Seeking
Goal-Seeking Properties of the Toyota Production System
Background: TPS and the Industrial Engineering Connection
The Role of Industrial Engineering
Industrial Engineering Theory
Literature Review of Industrial Engineering Methods
     The Scientific Management Era
     Skill Sets of Industrial Engineers in the Era of Scientific Management
          Skill Set: Scientific Method
          Skill Set: Importance of Direct Observation
          Skill Set: Work Sampling
          Skill Set: Questioning Attitude
          Skill Set: Standardization
          Skill Set: Standards Engineer
          Skill Set: Systems Thinking
          Skill Set: The Process Flowchart
          Skill Set: Work Distribution Charts
          Skill Set: Time Study
          Skill Set: Testing, Adaptive One Factor at a Time
     Contemporary Industrial Engineering
     Skill Sets of Contemporary Industrial Engineering
          Skill Set: Systems Engineering and Optimization
          Skill Set: Process Design and Reengineering
          Skill Set: Experimental Design, Design of Experiments, Taguchi Methods
          Skill Set: Six Sigma
          Skill Set: Lean Sigma
     Literature Review Summary
What Type of Industrial Engineering Identity Is TPS?
     Differences between TPS, the Efficiency Expert, and Traditional Lean
Adapting Scientific Management to TPS and the Comparison to Contemporary IE
     Standardization or Kaizen (Business Process Reengineering)?
     Knowledge by Observation (Genchi Genbutsu) or by Inference (Data)?
     Scientific Method or System Optimization?
Summary
References

The Property of Goal Seeking in TPS, Part 2
Problem Solving: The Identity of the Toyota Production System
     Problem Solving versus Kaizen (Improvement)
Structured Problem Solving
Toyota’s Eight-Step Problem-Solving Methodology
Human Problem-Solving Background
Literature Review of Problem-Solving Methodologies
Limitations with Problem-Solving Methodology Research
Problem-Solving Theory and Core Thinking Skills
Criteria for Evaluating Effective Cognitive Processes
Applying Human Problem-Solving Theory to Toyota’s Eight-Step Process
     Goal Clarity in A3 Thinking
     Productive Thinking in A3 Thinking
Putting It All Together
Summary
References

The System Property of Regulation in TPS
System Property: Regulation
The System Property of Regulation and the Toyota Production System
Literature Review of Jishukens
Literature Review of Quality Circles
Using Quality Circles and Jishukens to Create a Shared Vision
The Weakening and Strengthening of TPS using Shared Visions
The Regulation Cycle of TPS
Jishuken and Quality Circle Implementation Concepts
     Asking for Help and Promoting Waste Elimination
     Starting Point for Workplace Improvement
     The Team Structure of Jishukens and Quality Circles
     Support Functions in QCs and Jishukens
          Coach and Facilitate Problem Solving
          Jishukens and QCs Must Advance Stability through Standardization
          Model the Company’s Approach to Work
Summary
References

The System Property of Differentiation in TPS
System Property: Differentiation
Toyota Production System and System Differentiation
Literature Review of Leadership
     The Distinction between Management and Leadership
Literature Review of Leadership Theory
Leadership Theory for TPS
The Why Function of TPS Leadership
The How Function of TPS Leadership
     What If Leadership Is Not on Board with Defining, Coaching, or Implementing Lean?
The Where Function of TPS Leadership
The When Function of TPS Leadership
Summary
References

The System Property of Hierarchies in TPS
System Property: Hierarchy
The Hierarchical Property of the Toyota Production System
Decision Making in Hierarchies
     Vertical Decision Making
     Horizontal Decision Making
     Interdependent Decision Making
     Interdependent Performance
     Monitoring and Progress
     Routine Work and Nonroutine Work in Hoshin
Literature Review of Strategic Planning
     Problems and Challenges in Strategic Planning
Strategic Planning Theories
A System of Hierarchies: The Hoshin Process
     Planning Phase of Hoshin
     Preparation Phase of Hoshin
     Hoshin Implementation Phase
     Hoshin Evaluation
     End-of-Year Evaluation
A Theoretical Interpretation of Hoshin
Summary
References

The System Property of Transformation in TPS
System Property: Transformation
The Conversion Process in the Toyota Production System
Literature Review of Change Management
Conversion Process: Ingestor
Conversion Process: Motor
Conversion Process: Converter
Conversion Process: Producer
Conversion Process: Supporter
Conversion Process: Distributor
Conversion Process: Matter–Energy Storage
Summary
References

The System Property of Entropy in TPS
System Property: Entropy
Entropy in Organizations
Entropy in the Toyota Production System
     Japanese Management Techniques in Human Resources
     Japanese Management Practices and Toyota
Minimizing Entropy Using the Human Resource Function in TPS
Hygiene Theory and TPS: The Essential Needs of the Individual
     Stable Employee Relations
     Fair Appraisal and Treatment
     Improve the Terms and Conditions of Employment
     Workplace Communication
Motivation Theory and TPS: The Intrinsic Needs of the Individual
     Decision Making
     Teamwork
     Workplace Competence
Summary
References

The System Property of Reversibility in TPS
System Property: Reversibility
Minimizing Entropy in the Management and Labor Relationship (Reversibility)
Literature Review: The Birth of the Toyota Production System as a Union
     The Role of Trade Unions and the Human Resource Function in the United States
     The Use of Lean in Human Resource Development
     A Difficult Implementation of Lean in Union Environments in the United States
     Union Problems and Lean Production in the Automotive Industry
     A Successful Case of Lean Production in the Automotive Sector in a Union Environment
     The Influence of Labor Unions in Japan on Lean Production
Internal Reversibility in TPS: A Union Perspective
     Larger Employment Issues
External Reversibility in TPS: A Union Perspective
Summary
References

The System Property of Negative Entropy in TPS
System Property: Negative Entropy
Negative Entropy and the Toyota Production System
     Exceptional Creativity, Mundane Creativity, and Lifelong Learning
Organizational Learning and Communication: Some Basic Similarities with TPS
Literature Review of Organizational Learning and Communication
Organizational Learning Theory
Connecting the Kaizen Mind
The Preferred Learning and Communication Style for the Kaizen Mind
Summary
References

The System Property of Requisite Variety in TPS
System Property: Requisite Variety
A Theoretical Response to Complexity and Variety
Toyota Production System and the Law of Requisite Variety
Literature Review: Production Leveling
The Technical and Social Structures of Production Leveling
     Technical System: Prevention
     Technical System: Reactive
     Social System: Prevention
     Social System: Reaction
Summary
References

The System Properties of Interrelationship and Interdependence in TPS
System Properties: Interrelationship and Interdependence
Interrelationship and Interdependence in the Toyota Production System
A Review of Toyota’s Supplier Development Practices
Building Positive and Interdependent Structures in TPS
Summary
References

The System Property of Equifinality in TPS
System Property: Equifinality and Multifinality
The System Property of Equifinality for a Management System
The System Property of Equifinality for Non-Value-Added Work Environments
Literature Review
The TPS Goal in Facilities Maintenance
The Tenants of Waste Elimination in Maintenance
     Establishing Normal Work in Unknown and Nonroutine Work Environments
     Fewer Higher-Skilled Employees
     Seibi: Starting Point for Equipment and Maintenance Standards
     Improving Equipment Availability Using Problem Solving
Summary
References

Summary
Systems Theory and the Modern Theory
Management System Properties Can Be Satisfied in Many Ways
Organizing the Properties of TPS for Implementation
Timing and Pace
How Do You Know When the Modern Theory of TPS Is Working?

Author Bio(s)

Editorial Reviews

Dr. Marksberry looks at TPS in the context of organizational behavior, social sciences, management science, and engineering sciences. He presents new insights into how the elements of TPS work together as a system across an organization. Both scholars and practitioners of TPS and Lean Manufacturing will find this book to be thought provoking and revealing about how successful TPS operates.
Larry Holloway, Professor and Chair of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky

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