Water & Wastewater Infrastructure

Water & Wastewater Infrastructure: Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

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Features

  • Explains how to replace conventional energy supplies with renewable energy sources (hydro, solar, wind, and natural gas) in water facilities
  • Discusses best management practices, innovations, cost-cutting measures, and energy efficiency procedures
  • Discusses auxiliary and supplemental power sources for wastewater treatment plants
  • Examines the benefits derived from using renewable energy sources
  • Provides case studies to demonstrate how some facilities have used equipment, technology, and operating strategies to save money and reduce their impact

Summary

A critical aspect of sustainability associated with water and wastewater systems is to maintain and manage infrastructure in the most efficient and economical manner while complying with environmental regulations and keeping rates at acceptable levels. Given the high cost of fuel, our growing population, and the associated increase in energy needs, it is important to address energy use and future energy availability for the treatment of the water we drink and the water we pollute. Water & Wastewater Infrastructure: Energy Efficiency and Sustainability addresses these issues, detailing the processes that can assist facilities to become more energy efficient and providing guidance to ensure their sustainability.

The text begins with brief descriptions of the water and wastewater treatment industries. It then describes some of the basics of energy and discusses what planning for a sustainable energy future in water and wastewater treatment plants entails. The author explores energy-saving options and provides case studies to demonstrate how some facilities have used equipment, technology, and operating strategies to save money and reduce their impact. The energy-efficient technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), gas turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, steam turbines, and fuel cells. The author also addresses biomass power and biogas.

The section on sustainability and renewable energy covers hydropower, solar power, and wind power as well as energy conservation measures for treating wastewater. Nine appendices provide individual case studies that present evaluations of energy conservation measures, results, payback analysis, and conclusions. This book addresses the challenges faced by water and wastewater treatment facilities by examining how they can operate in ways that provide economic and environmental benefits, save money, reduce environmental impact, and lead to sustainability.

Table of Contents

Section I The Basics

Introduction
Setting the Stage
Sustainable Water/Wastewater Infrastructure
Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Gap
Energy Efficiency: Water/Wastewater Treatment Operations
References and Recommended Reading

Characteristics of the Wastewater and Drinking Water Industries
Introduction
Characteristics of the Wastewater Industry
Characteristics of the Drinking Water Industry
Capital Stock and Impact on Operations and Maintenance
Wastewater Capital Stock
Drinking Water Capital Stock
Costs of Providing Service
References and Recommended Reading

Water, Wastewater, and Energy
Introduction
Energy Basics
Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy
Units for Comparing Energy
References and Recommended Reading

Planning for a Sustainable Energy Future
Wastewater and Drinking Water Treatment Energy Usage
Fast Facts
Benchmark It!
Baseline Audit
References and Recommended Reading

Section II Energy-Efficient Equipment, Technology, and Operating Strategies

Energy-Efficient Equipment
Introduction
Motors
Variable-Frequency Drives
HVAC Enhancements
Energy-Smart Lighting
References and Recommended Reading

Energy-Efficient Operating Strategies
Introduction
Electrical Load Management
Biosolids Management
Operations and Maintenance: Energy- and Cost-Saving Procedures
Inflow and Infiltration Control
References and Recommended Reading

Section III Energy-Efficient Technology

Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
Introduction
CHP Key Definitions
Calculating Total CHP System Efficiency
Calculating Effective Electric Efficiency
Selecting CHP Efficiency Metrics
Wastewater Treatment Facilities with CHP
Overview of CHP Technologies
References and Recommended Reading

Gas Turbines
Introduction
Applications
Gas Turbine Technology
References and Recommended Reading

Microturbines
Introduction
Microturbine Applications
Microturbine Technology
Design Characteristics
Microturbine Performance Characteristics
Emissions
References and Recommended Reading

Reciprocating Engines
Introduction
Applications
Reciprocating Engine Technology
Design Characteristics
Performance Characteristics
Emissions
References and Recommended Reading

Steam Turbines
Introduction
Applications
Steam Turbine: Basic Process and Components
Performance Characteristics
Emissions
References and Recommended Reading

Fuel Cells
Introduction
Fuel Cells: The Basics
Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Realistic View
CHP Applications
References and Recommended Reading

Section IV Biomass Power and Heat Generation

CHP and Wastewater Biogas
Grasshopper Generation
Biomass
Biomass for Power and Heat Generation
Biogas (Methane, CH4)
Wastewater Treatment Plant Biogas
Cogeneration Using Landfill Biogas
Biodiesel
References and Recommended Reading

Section V Sustainability Using Renewable Energy

Macro- and Microhydropower
Introduction
Hydropower
Hydropower Basic Concepts
Reservoir Stored Energy
Hydroturbines
Advanced Hydropower Technology
Hydropower Generation: Dissolved Oxygen Concerns
Bottom Line on Macrohydropower
Microhydropower Concepts
Permits and Water Rights
References and Recommended Reading

Solar Power
Introduction
Concentrating Solar Power
Photovoltaics (PV)
Solar Power Applications
Structure Daylighting
Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Applications
References and Recommended Reading

Wind Power
Introduction
It’s All About the Wind
Air in Motion
Wind Energy
Wind Power Basics
Wind Turbine Types
Turbine Features
Wind Energy and Power Calculations
Small-Scale Wind Power
Wind Power Applications in Water/Wastewater Treatment
References and Recommended Reading

Energy Conservation Measures for Wastewater Treatment
Introduction
Pumping System Energy Conservation Measures
Design and Control of Aeration Systems
Blowers
References and Recommended Reading

Section VI Appendices

Appendix A.
Magnetic Bearing Turbo Blowers at the Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District De Pere Wastewater Treatment Facility

Appendix B.
Turblex® Blowers and Air Flow Control Valves on the Sheboygan Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant

Appendix C.
Upgrade from Mechanical Aeration to Air-Bearing Turbo Blowers and Fine-Bubble Diffusers at the Big Gulch Wastewater Treatment Plant

Appendix D.
Optical DO Sensor Technology and Aerator Rotor VFD Control at the City of Bartlett, Tennessee, Wastewater Treatment Plant

Appendix E.
Advanced Aeration Control for the Oxnard, California, Wastewater Treatment Plant

Appendix F.
DO Optimization Using Floating Pressure Blower Control in a Most Open Valve Strategy at the Narragansett Bay Commission Bucklin Point WTTP, Rhode Island

Appendix G.
Capacity and Fuel Efficiency Improvements at Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission Western Branch WWTP, Prince Georges County, Maryland

Appendix H.
Permit-Safe and Energy-Smart Greening of Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations at the San Jose/Santa Clara, California, Water Pollution Control Plant

Appendix I.
Diffuser Upgrades and DO Controlled Blowers at the Waco, Texas, Metropolitan Area Regional Sewer System Wastewater Treatment Facility

Glossary

Index

Author Bio(s)

Frank R. Spellman, Ph.D., is a retired U.S. Naval Officer with 26 years of active duty, a retired environmental safety and health manager for a large wastewater sanitation district in Virginia, and a retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. He is the author or co-author of 75 books, with more soon to be published. Dr. Spellman consults on environmental matters with the U.S. Department of Justice and various law firms and environmental entities around the globe.

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