Introduction to Instrumentation in Life Sciences

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Features

  • Provides a comprehensive, detailed overview of techniques and usage of key instrumentation needed in biotechnology and life sciences
  • Includes basic theoretical and practical details for numerous types of chromatography, such as column, thin-layer, and high-performance liquid chromatography
  • Describes a broad range of spectroscopic techniques, including UV/visible, fluorescence, NMR, and circular dichroism spectroscopy
  • Covers electrophoretic techniques and their applications for deciphering the molecular nature of cell components as well as in gene technology
  • Contains unique in-depth coverage of fermentation processes
  • Offers an excellent bench manual for researchers

Summary

Instrumentation is central to the study of physiology and genetics in living organisms, especially at the molecular level. Numerous techniques have been developed to address this in various biological disciplines, creating a need to understand the physical principles involved in the operation of research instruments and the parameters required in using them. Introduction to Instrumentation in Life Sciences fills this need by addressing different aspects of tools that hold the keys to cutting-edge research and innovative applications, from basic techniques to advanced instrumentation. The text describes all topics so even beginners can easily understand the theoretical and practical aspects.

Comprehensive chapters encompass well-defined methodology that describes the instruments and their corresponding applications in different scientific fields. The book covers optical and electron microscopy; micrometry, especially in microbial taxonomy; pH meters and oxygen electrodes; chromatography for separation and purification of products from complex mixtures; spectroscopic and spectrophotometric techniques to determine structure and function of biomolecules; preparative and analytical centrifugation; electrophoretic techniques; x-ray microanalysis including crystallography; applications of radioactivity, including autoradiography and radioimmunoassays; and fermentation technology and subsequent separation of products of interest.

The book is designed to serve a wide range of students and researchers in diversified fields of life sciences: pharmacy, biotechnology, microbiology, biochemistry, and environmental sciences. It introduces different aspects of basic experimental methods and instrumentation. The book is unique in its broad subject coverage, incorporating fundamental techniques as well as applications of modern molecular and proteomic tools that are the basis for state-of-the-art research. The text emphasizes techniques encountered both in practical classes and in high-throughput environments used in modern industry. As a further aid to students, the authors provide well-illustrated diagrams to explain the principles and theories behind the instruments described.

Table of Contents

Microscopy
Introduction
Magnification, Resolution, and Contrast
Light (Bright Field) Microscopy
Dark Field Microscope
Phase Contrast Microscope
Interference Microscope
UV and Fluorescence Microscopes
Electron Microscopy
Tunneling Electron Microscopy
Confocal Microscopy
Techniques in Microscopy
Electron Microscopy
Suggested Readings
Important Links

Micrometry
Introduction
Structure of an Ocular Micrometer
Conjugate Image-Forming Focal Planes
Eyepiece Designs
Stage Micrometer
Filar Eyepiece Micrometer
Principle of Filar Eyepiece Micrometer
Working
Suggested Reading
Important Links

Electrochemical Techniques
Introduction
Structure of a pH Meter
Principles
Factors Limiting the Accuracy of pH Measurements
Measurement of pH
Working
Procedure for Measuring pH Using a pH Meter
Cleaning and Troubleshooting of Glass Probes
Application of pH Measurements
Oxygen Electrode
Suggested Readings
Important Links

Chromatography
Introduction
General Principles
Column Chromatography
Paper Chromatography and Thin-Layer Chromatography
Sample Collection, Preservation, and Preparation
Adsorption Chromatography
Partition Chromatography
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography
Gas–Liquid Chromatography
Ion-Exchange Chromatography
Exclusion Chromatography
Affinity Chromatography
Suggested Readings
Important Links

Spectroscopy
Introduction
UV–Visible Spectroscopy
IR (Vibrational) Spectroscopy
Flame/Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
ESR Spectroscopy
NMR Spectroscopy
MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry
Circular Dichroism (CD) Spectroscopy
Suggested Readings
Important Links

Centrifugation
Introduction
Principle of Centrifugation
Types of Centrifuges
Types of Centrifugal Separations
Rotor Categories
Selection of Centrifuge Tubes
Common Centrifugation Vocabulary and Formulas
Analytical Ultracentrifuge
Suggested Reading
Important Links

Electrophoresis
Introduction
Principles of GE
Working with the Electrophoresis Apparatus
Denaturing Gradient GE
Temperature Gradient GE
Pulsed-Field GE
Capillary Electrophoresis
Suggested Readings
Important Links

X-Ray Microanalysis
Introduction
Principles
Instrumentation
Applications of X-Ray Microanalysis
Techniques for the Analysis of Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Proteins by X-Ray Crystallography
Suggested Readings
Important Link

Techniques with Radioisotopes
Introduction
Isotopes and Radioactivity
Ionization Effects
Measurement Units
Measurement Techniques
Autoradiography
Counting Statistics
Biological Uses of Radioisotopes
Tracer Dilution Technique
Radioimmunoassay
Miscellaneous Uses of Radioisotopes
Radioisotope Production
Most Widely Used Radioisotopes
Suggested Reading
Important Links

Fermentation
Introduction
History
Principles of Fermentation
Introduction to Microorganisms
Types of Fermentation Metabolism
Fermentation Process
Types of Fermentation
Types of Fermentors
Sterilization in Fermentation
Product Recovery
Suggested Readings
Important Links

Conductivity Meter
Introduction
Principles
Common Definitions
Conductivity Meter
Conductivity Cells
Factors Influencing the Measurement
Measuring Techniques
Reliable Measurements
Maintenance and Storage
Applications
Suggested Readings
Important Links

Glossary

Index

Author Bio(s)

Editorial Reviews

"The proposed book is an excellent one for use of students, research scholars and teachers of life sciences, biotechnology, biochemistry, biophysics and other related disciplines where such books exclusively dedicated for life sciences are not available."
—Prof. Sukh Mahendra Singh, Coordinator, School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, India

"A comprehensive text book on instrumentation methods which covers all major topics including practical exercises representing the syllabi of various postgraduate and undergraduate programmes in life sciences."
—Prof. Vinay Sharma, Prof. & Head, Dept of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Banasthali University, India

"I find that the book should be much useful for undergraduate (bachelors degree) and graduate (masters degree) students. Very good book, properly arranged topics, will certainly be useful for the audience."
—Anil Kumar, Ph.D., Professor and Head (Chair), School of Biotechnology, Devi Ahilya University, India