Fuels, Energy, and the Environment

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Features

  • Provides an integrated yet simplified presentation of the factors and processes that dictate the suitability of various types of fuels in combustion systems and their impact on the environment
  • Offers material that relates to conventional engineering courses on thermodynamics, combustion, environmental engineering, chemistry, and materials science
  • Contains many solved examples, tables of supporting data, and figures
  • Includes a synopsis, homework problems, and further reading at the end of each chapter

Solutions manual, figure slides, and PowerPoint slides available upon qualifying course adoption

Summary

The need for cleaner, sustainable energy continues to drive engineering research, development, and capital projects. Recent advances in combustion science and technology, including sophisticated diagnostic and control equipment, have enabled engineers to improve fuel processes and systems and reduce the damaging effects of fuels on the environment.

With an emphasis on how fuels and combustion impact economic and environmental interests, Fuels, Energy, and the Environment offers an up-to-date and balanced overview of the whole field of fuel science and technology. Accessible to undergraduate and graduate students as well as practicing engineers, the text focuses on energy supplies, fuel efficiency, and environmental challenges.

Using relatively simple language, the book explores the composition and combustion characteristics of a wide range of fuels becoming available worldwide. It examines the dependence on combustion devices for the exploitation of various fuel resources for producing heat and power as well as the need to increase the efficiency of energy production and use. The text also addresses the negative impact on the environment from fuel-consuming devices and activities associated with fuel and energy applications, exploring measures/equipment to control emissions and improve the performance of burners and fuel-consuming appliances.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Preamble
Different Forms of Energy
Primary Sources of Energy
Non-Fossil Fuel-Based Energy
Considering the Losses of Energy from Its Production Source to Its Point of Consumption
Energy Resources Exploitation

Fuels in General
Introduction
Some of the Main Desirable Properties of Fuels
Some Relevant Units of Measurement
Some Patterns of Fuel and Energy Resources and Usage
Definitions of Reserves
Some General Observations about Fuel and Energy Statistics
Changes in the Consumption of Different Sources of Energy

Fuels Classification
Fossil Fuels
Hydrocarbon Fuels
Some Oxygenated Compounds

Fuel-Consuming Energy Systems
Fuel-Consuming Work-Producing Devices
Work and Heat
Efficiency
Fuel Energy Systems
Cogeneration
Fuel Consumption
Hybrid Engines
Choice of Energy Systems

Stoichiometry and Thermodynamics
Heating Value of Fuels
Adiabatic Flame Temperature
Procedure for Calculating the Temperature and Composition of the Products of Combustion, When Equilibrium Conditions are Assumed
Calorimeters
Some Solved Examples

Chemical Kinetics of Fuel Combustion
Chemical Reactions
Combustion Chemical Kinetics
Solved Examples
Modeling Fuel Combustion Reactions
Types of Chemical Reactions Relevant to Fuels and Energy

Exhaust Emissions from the Combustion of Fuels
Products of Combustion of Fuels
Air Pollution Control
Catalytic Converters
Greenhouse Effect
Sulfur in Fuels
Fuel-Induced Corrosion of Metals
Solved Example

Combustion and Flames
Combustion, Flames, and Ignition Processes
Diffusion Flames versus Premixed Flames
Combustion Stability Characteristics
Fuel Combustion via Burners and Orifices
Combustion of Solid Fuels
Solid Fuels Combustion Using Fluidized Beds

Fire and Safety in Relation to Fuel Installations and Handling
Fuel Fires
Flammability Limits of Fuels
Some Protective Measures
Flash Point
Some Terms Related to Fuel Fires and Safety
Solved Example

Petroleum
Petroleum Reservoirs
Oil Recovery
Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods
Oil Sands
Oil Shale

Refining of Petroleum
Need for Refining
Refining Chemical Processes
Catalysts and Their Action
Controls through Codes and Standards

Gasoline
Spark Ignition Gasoline-Fueled Engines
Volatility
Additives to Gasoline
Catalysts
Spark Ignition Engine Knock
Some Features of Engine Knock
Some Negative Effects of Knock in Spark Ignition Engines
Operational Knock Limits
Octane Number
Effects of Engine Variables for Increased Incidence of Knock
Knock Control
Three-Way Catalyst

Diesel Fuels and Some Other Liquid Fuels
Diesel Engine Combustion Processes
Ignition Delay in Diesel Engines
Diesel Engine Fuels
Diesel Engine Emissions
Biodiesel Fuels
Fischer-Tropsch Diesel
Dual-Fuel Engine
Liquid Fuels for Aviation Applications
Heavy Fuels for Boiler and Furnace Applications
Liquid and Solid Propellants
Solved Example

Solid Fuels
Combustion of Solid Fuels
Coal
Case for Coal
Some Properties of Coal
Classification of Coals
Solved Examples
Coal Combustion in Fluidized Beds
Gasification of Coal
Underground Gasification of Coal
Some Other Solid Fuels
Coal Bed Methane
Solid Fuels as Propellants
Solved Example

Natural Gas and Other Gaseous Fuels
Merits of Operation on Gaseous Fuels
Natural Gas
Natural Gas Transmission
Flaring of Fuel Gases
Liquefied Natural Gas
LNG Safety
Hydrates of Methane
Comparison of Features of Natural Gas-Fueled Gas Turbines with Those of Spark-Ignition Engines
Propane and Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Solved Example
LPG Safety
Some Common Non-Natural Gas Mixtures
Landfill Gases
Biogas Fuels
Hydrogen Sulfide
Solved Examples

Alternative Fuels
Introduction
Applications
Alcohols as Fuels
Hydrogen as a Fuel
Liquid Hydrogen
Compressed Natural Gas

Glossary

References

Index

Problems, a Synopsis, and a Bibliography appear at the end of each chapter.

Author Bio(s)

Ghazi A. Karim is a professor of engineering at the University of Calgary. Dr. Karim has developed numerous undergraduate and graduate courses, conducted research, and published extensively on topics relating to energy conversion, fuels, combustion, and the environment. He has also been a consultant to a wide variety of public and private institutions.

Editorial Reviews

"All complicated materials of combustion science are presented in a very clear and precise manner … This is the book, in my opinion, that every combustion, fire safety, and fuel engineer should have. … equally useful to newcomers … [and] experienced professionals and researchers in the area.
—S.O. Bade Shrestha, Western Michigan University

The book covers all aspects of fuels, not just … chemistry or combustion. Of particular importance and actuality are those issues related to safety and environmental impact. Furthermore, the variety of fuels and processes discussed is very wide.
—Giuseppe Spazzafumo, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio