Fundamentals of Picoscience

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Features

  • Details all experimental techniques for picoscale studies, including atomic-scale optical and neutron holography, homodyne and heterodyne interferometry, digital holographic microscopy, single-atom STM, orbital-mediated tunneling spectroscopy (OMTS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS)
  • Explains how to determine the atomic structure of proteins and individual peptides through electron diffractive imaging and coherent x-ray diffraction imaging
  • Explores the future of picoelectronic devices, such as molecular electronic applications, NEM single-atom switches, a picomotor, single-photon quantum devices, and single-photon gating systems
  • Includes introductions in each chapter that explain basic concepts, define technical terms, and give context to the main material

Summary

Now ubiquitous in public discussions about cutting-edge science and technology, nanoscience has generated many advances and inventions, from the development of new quantum mechanical methods to far-reaching applications in electronics and medical diagnostics. Ushering in the next technological era, Fundamentals of Picoscience focuses on the instrumentation and experiments emerging at the picometer scale.

One picometer is the length of a trillionth of a meter. Compared to a human cell of typically ten microns, this is roughly ten million times smaller. In this state-of-the-art book, international scientists and researchers at the forefront of the field present the materials and methods used at the picoscale. They address the key challenges in developing new instrumentation and techniques to visualize and measure structures at this sub-nanometer level. With numerous figures, the book will help you:

  • Understand how picoscience is an extension of nanoscience
  • Determine which experimental technique to use in your research
  • Connect basic studies to the development of next-generation picoelectronic devices

The book covers various approaches for detecting, characterizing, and imaging at the picoscale. It then presents picoscale methods ranging from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to spectroscopic approaches at sub-nanometer spatial and energy resolutions. It also covers novel picoscale structures and picometer positioning systems. The book concludes with picoscale device applications, including single molecule electronics and optical computers. Introductions in each chapter explain basic concepts, define technical terms, and give context to the main material.

Table of Contents

Picoscale Detection
Picometer Detection by Adaptive Holographic Interferometry
Umberto Bortolozzo, Stefania Residori, Jean-Pierre Hiugnard, and Alexei A. Kamshilin

Single Atom in an Optical Cavity: An Open Quantum System
John D. Close, Rachel Poldy, Ben C. Buchler, and Nicholas P. Robins

Measurements of Subnanometer Molecular Layers
Maciej Kokot

Electrostatic Potential Mapping in Electron Holography
Lew Rabenberg

Picoscale Characterization
Interferometric Measurements at the Picometer Scale
Marco Pisani

Protein Crystallography at Subatomic Resolution
Tatiana Petrova and Alberto Podjarny

X-Ray Optics: Toward Subnanometer Focusing
Christian G. Schroer

Picoscale Imaging
Imaging Small Molecules by Scanning Probe Microscopy
Shirley Chiang

Neutron Holographic Imaging with Picometer Accuracy
László Cser, Gerhard Krexner, Márton Markó, and Alex Szakál

Subnanometer-Scale Electron Microscopy Analysis
Sergio Lozano-Perez

Atomic-Scale Imaging of Dielectric Point Defects
Clayton C. Williams

Picometer-Scale Dynamical Single-Molecule Imaging by High-Energy Probe
Yuji C. Sasaki

Scanning Probe Microscopy
Atomic-Resolution Frequency Modulation
Takeshi Fukuma

Theory for Picoscale Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Jouko Nieminen

Electrochemical STM: Atomic Structure of Metal/Electrolyte Interfaces
Knud Gentz and Klaus Wandelt

Cold-Atom Scanning Probe Microscopy: An Overview
Andreas Günther, Hendrik Hölscher, and József Fortágh

Atomic Resolution Ultrafast Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Qingyou Lu

Electron Orbitals
Imaging Atomic Orbitals with the Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Alexander N. Chaika, Sergey I. Bozhko, and Igor V. Shvets

STM of Quantum Corrals
Akira Tamura

Attosecond Imaging of Molecular Orbitals
David M. Villeneuve

Picoscale Electron Density Analysis of Organic Crystals
Yusuke Wakabayashi

Atomic-Scale Magnetism
Atomic-Scale Magnetism Studied by Spin-Polarized Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Oswald Pietzsch and Roland Wiesendanger

Atomic and Molecular Magnets on Surfaces
Harald Brune and Pietro Gambardella

Spin Inelastic Electron Spectroscopy for Single Magnetic Atoms
Aaron Hurley, Nadjib Baadji, and Stefano Sanvito

Picowires
Ferromagnetism in One-Dimensional Atomic Chains
Jisang Hong

Carbon Atomic Chains
Igor M. Mikhailovskij, Evgenij V. Sadanov, and Tatjana I. Mazilova

Single-Atom Electromigration in Atomic-Scale Conductors
Masaaki Araidai and Masaru Tsukada

Picometer Positioning
Picometer Positioning Using a Femtosecond Optical Comb
Mariko Kajima

Detection of Subnanometer Ultrasonic Displacements
Tomaž Požar and Janez Možina

Picometer-Scale Optical Noninterferometric Displacement Measurements
Ezio Puppin

Direct Observation of the X-Ray-Induced Atomic Motion
Akira Saito

Picoscale Devices
Mirrors with a Subnanometer Surface Shape Accuracy
Maria Mikhailovna Barysheva, Nikolay Ivanivich Chkhalo, Aleksei Evgenievich Pestov, Nikolay Nikolaevich Salashchenko, Mikhail Nikolaevich Toropov, and Maria Vladimirovna Zorina

Single Molecule Electronics
Simon J. Higgins and Richard J. Nichols

Single-Atom Transistors for Light
Andrew Scott Parkins

Carbon-Based Zero-, One-, and Two-Dimensional Materials for Device Application
Young Kuk

Subnanometer Characterization of Nanoelectronic Devices
Pierre Eyben, Jay Mody, Aftab Nazir, Andreas Schulze, Trudo Clarysse, Thomas Hantschel, and Wilfried Vandervorst

Chromophores for Picoscale Optical Computers
Heinz Langhals

Index

Editor Bio(s)

Klaus D. Sattler is a professor of physics at the University of Hawaii, where his research group obtained the first atomic-scale images of carbon nanotubes and produced the first carbon nanocones. His current work focuses on nanodiamonds, graphene quantum dots, and solar photocatalysis with nanoparticles for the purification of water. Dr. Sattler has been a recipient of the German Physical Society’s Walter Schottky Prize. He received a PhD from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH).

Editorial Reviews

"Do we already have instruments to probe below the nano-range? How can we develop new instruments to visualize and measure structures at the subnanometer size? Answers to these and other questions are given in this book, Fundamentals of Picoscience. … The editor has done excellent job in selection of section themes and organising the chapters in an appropriate manner. The literature survey is very exhaustive and effort has been made to list references in full measure … I hope the research community will welcome this book …"
—H.S. Virk, Current Science