Strain-Engineered MOSFETs

Strain-Engineered MOSFETs

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Summary

Currently strain engineering is the main technique used to enhance the performance of advanced silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Written from an engineering application standpoint, Strain-Engineered MOSFETs introduces promising strain techniques to fabricate strain-engineered MOSFETs and to methods to assess the applications of these techniques. The book provides the background and physical insight needed to understand new and future developments in the modeling and design of n- and p-MOSFETs at nanoscale.

This book focuses on recent developments in strain-engineered MOSFETS implemented in high-mobility substrates such as, Ge, SiGe, strained-Si, ultrathin germanium-on-insulator platforms, combined with high-k insulators and metal-gate. It covers the materials aspects, principles, and design of advanced devices, fabrication, and applications. It also presents a full technology computer aided design (TCAD) methodology for strain-engineering in Si-CMOS technology involving data flow from process simulation to process variability simulation via device simulation and generation of SPICE process compact models for manufacturing for yield optimization.

Microelectronics fabrication is facing serious challenges due to the introduction of new materials in manufacturing and fundamental limitations of nanoscale devices that result in increasing unpredictability in the characteristics of the devices. The down scaling of CMOS technologies has brought about the increased variability of key parameters affecting the performance of integrated circuits. This book provides a single text that combines coverage of the strain-engineered MOSFETS and their modeling using TCAD, making it a tool for process technology development and the design of strain-engineered MOSFETs.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Technology Scaling
Substrate-Induced Strain Engineering
Process-Induced Stress Engineering
Electronic Properties of Strained Semiconductors
Strain-Engineered MOSFETs
Noise in Strain-Engineered Devices
Technology CAD of Strain-Engineered MOSFETs
Reliability of Strain-Engineered MOSFETs
Process Compact Modelling
Process-Aware Design
Summary
Additional Reading

Substrate-Induced Strain Engineering in CMOS Technology

Substrate Engineering
Strained SiGe Film Growth
Strained SiGe:C Film Growth
Strained Si Films on Relaxed Si1–xGex
Strained Si on SOI
Strained Ge Film Growth
Strained Ge MOSFETs
Heterostructure SiGe/SiGe:C Channel MOSFETs
Strained Si MOSFETs
Hybrid Orientation Technology
Summary
Review Questions
References

Process-Induced Stress Engineering in CMOS Technology
Stress Engineering
Si1–xGex in Source/Drain
Si1–yCy in Source/Drain
Shallow Trench Isolation (STI)
Contact Etch Stop Layer (CESL)
Silicidation
Stress Memorisation Technique (SMT)
Global vs. Local Strain
BEOL Stress: Through-Silicon Via
TSV Modelling
Summary
Review Questions
References

Electronic Properties of Strain-Engineered Semiconductors

Basics of Stress Engineering
Stress–Strain Relationships
Strain-Engineered MOSFETs: Current
Energy Gap and Band Structure
Silicon Conduction Band
Silicon Valence Band
Band Structure under Stress
Piezoresistive Mobility Model
Strain-Induced Mobility Model
Implementation of Mobility Model
Summary
Review Questions
References

Strain-Engineered MOSFETs

Process Integration
Multigate Transistors
Double-Gate MOSFET
Ω-FinFET
Tri-Gate FinFET
FinFETs Using Gate-Induced Stress
Stress-Engineered FinFETs
Layout Dependence
Summary
Review Questions
References

Noise in Strain-Engineered Devices,
C. Mukherjee
Noise Mechanisms
Fundamental Noise Sources
1/f Noise in MOSFETs
Noise Characterisation in MOSFETs
Strain Effects on Noise in MOSFETs
Noise in Strain-Engineered MOSFETs
Noise in Multigate FETs
Noise in Silicon Nanowire Transistors (SNWTs)
Noise in Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
Summary
Review Questions
References

Technology CAD of Strain-Engineered MOSFETs
TCAD Calibration
Simulation of Strain-Engineered MOSFETs
DC Performance
AC Performance
Hybrid Orientation Technology for Strain-Engineered MOSFETs
Simulation of Embedded SiGe MOSFETs
Summary
Review Questions
References

Reliability and Degradation of Strain-Engineered MOSFETs

NBTI in Strain-Engineered p-MOSFETs
Simulation of NBTI in p-MOSFETs
HCI in Strain-Engineered n-MOSFETs
Simulation of HCI in n-MOSFETs
Reliability Issues in FinFETs
Summary
Review Questions
References

Process Compact Modelling of Strain-Engineered MOSFETs

Process Variation
Predictive Technology Modelling
Process-Aware Design for Manufacturing
Process Compact Model
Process-Aware SPICE Parameter Extraction
Summary
Review Questions
References

Process-Aware Design of Strain-Engineered MOSFETs

Process Design Co-Optimisation
Classifications of Variation
Designs for Manufacturing and Yield Optimisation
Performance Optimisation
Manufacturability Optimisation
Summary
Review Questions
References

Conclusions

Index

Author Bio(s)

Editorial Reviews

"… an immensely useful book for the researcher in this field and even for some like me who do not work exactly in this area. Any scientist interested in strain modulation of device properties will value this book."
—Supriyo Bandyopadhyay, Virginia Commonwealth University

"… a timely bridge from the conventional MOSFETs to advanced strain-engineered MOSFETs to non-classical multiple gate devices to FinFETs. … I strongly recommend this book."
—Dr. Enrique MIRANDA, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

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