Introduction to Intelligence Studies

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ISBN 9781466500037
Cat# K14365



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    • Provides a working definition of intelligence and a history of intelligence as practiced in the United States
    • Offers past and recent case examples of intelligence successes, failures, and lessons learned
    • Covers intelligence writing, military intelligence, the intelligence cycle, and laws governing intelligence
    • Includes the latest developments in Homeland Security as related to Office of the Director of National Intelligence and the intelligence community as a whole
    • Examines collections, analysis, counterintelligence, and covert operations
    • Presents emerging threats and challenges

    Instructor’s manual and other ancillaries available with qualifying course adoption


      Since the attacks of 9/11, the United States Intelligence Community (IC) has undergone an extensive overhaul. Perhaps the greatest of these changes has been the formation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. As a cabinet-level official, the Director oversees the various agencies of the IC and reports directly to the President. The IC today faces challenges as it never has before; everything from terrorism to pandemics to economic stability has now become an intelligence issue. As a result, the IC is shifting its focus to a world in which tech-savvy domestic and international terrorists, transnational criminal organizations, failing states, and economic instability are now a way of life.

      Introduction to Intelligence Studies provides a comprehensive overview of intelligence and security issues, defining critical terms, and reviewing the history of intelligence as practiced in the United States. Designed in a practical sequence, the book begins with the basics of intelligence, progresses through its history, describes best practices, and explores the way the IC looks and operates today. Each chapter begins with objectives and key terms and closes with questions to test reader assimilation.

      The authors examine the "pillars" of the American intelligence system—collection, analysis, counterintelligence, and covert operations—and demonstrate how these work together to provide "decision advantage." The book provides equal treatment to the functions of the intelligence world—balancing coverage on intelligence collection, counterintelligence, information management, critical thinking, and decision-making. It also covers such vital issues as laws and ethics, writing and briefing for the IC, and the emerging threats and challenges that intelligence professionals will face in the future.

      Table of Contents

      An Overview of Intelligence
      What Is Intelligence?
      The Challenge of Defining Intelligence
      Information and Intelligence
      Types of Intelligence
      Functions of Intelligence Agencies
      Policymakers and Decision-Makers
      Intelligence Foundations in U.S. Government
      U.S. Intelligence Community
      Purpose of Intelligence
      Limitations of Intelligence
      History of Intelligence in the United States
      Revolutionary War to Civil War
      Civil War to World War I
      Law Enforcement Intelligence: The Palmer Raids
      World War I to Pearl Harbor
      World War II
      The Cold War
      National Security Act of 1947
      Early Days of the CIA
      Korean War
      Creation of the National Security Agency
      Evolution of IMINT
      Vietnam Era
      War at Home
      Watergate and the Pike and Church Committees
      The Carter Years
      The Reagan Years: End of Cold War
      End of the Soviet Union
      Emergence of Terrorism
      Espionage in 1980s and 1990s
      The Clinton Years
      9/11 and Its Aftermath
      Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 and Creation of the Director of National Intelligence
      Recent Developments in the Struggle against Terrorism
      The IC Today
      Designated Federal Agencies and the DNI
      Director of National Intelligence
      Independent Agencies: CIA
      Department of Energy: Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence
      DHS: Office of Intelligence and Analysis
      DHS: Coast Guard Intelligence
      Department of Justice: FBI
      Department of Justice: DEA
      Department of State: Bureau of Intelligence and Research
      Department of the Treasury: Office of Terrorism and Financial
      Military Agencies: Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines
      Military Agencies: Defense Intelligence Agency
      Military Agencies: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
      Military Agencies: National Security Agency
      Military Agencies: National Reconnaissance Office
      Federal, State, and Local Agencies
      Federal Agencies
      State and Local Agencies
      Private Sector
      Considerations for Collection
      Credibility Issues: Vetting the Source
      Information: How Much Is Enough?
      Protecting Sources and Methods
      First Step in Collection—You Need to Have a Plan
      Collection Methods: The "INTs"
      Human Intelligence
      Signals Intelligence
      Geospatial Intelligence
      Financial Intelligence
      Open Source Intelligence
      Barriers to Analysis
      Murky World of IC
      Psychological Barriers
      Group Decision-Making
      Bureaucratic Barriers: Politics and the Will of the Policymaker
      Bureaucratic Barriers: Information Sharing
      Security and Sharing: Inherent Tension
      Analytical Methods
      Critical Thinking
      Structured Analytical Techniques
      Understanding Our Assumptions: Key Assumptions Check
      Considering All Sides of the Issue: Analysis of Competing Hypotheses
      Preparing for Whatever Comes: Scenarios
      The Emperor’s Clothes Are Fair Game: Contrarian Methods
      Analytical Software
      Putting It All Together: The Intelligence Cycle
      Information and the Origin of the Intelligence Cycle
      The Intelligence Cycle
      Step One: Planning and Direction
      Step Two: Collection
      Step Three: Processing
      Step Four: Analysis
      Step Five: Dissemination
      Step Six: Evaluation
      Critical Reactions to the Intelligence Cycle
      Defensive Counterintelligence
      Classification Systems
      Security Clearances
      Counterintelligence Operations

      Offensive Counterintelligence
      Catching Spies in the United States
      International Operations
      Counterintelligence Operations Today
      Covert Operations
      Covert Operations
      Clandestine Operations
      Deception Operations
      Recent History of Covert and Clandestine Operations by the United States
      Military Covert Operations
      Legal Requirements upon the President to Report Intelligence Operations
      Covert Operations and the War on Terror
      Are Covert Operations a Good Idea?
      Constitutional Mandates—Overview of Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Roles
      Legal Origin of the Intelligence Community
      Intelligence and International Law
      Targeting and Assassination
      Fourth Amendment: Right to Privacy
      History of FISA
      28 Code of Federal Regulations 23
      First Amendment Issues and Intelligence
      Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act
      Terrorism and Legal Proceedings
      Classified Information Procedures Act
      Writing and Briefing for the Intelligence Community
      Types of Intelligence Writing
      Writing for an Audience
      How to Write Intelligence Products
      Good versus Bad Intelligence Writing
      The Art of Writing
      The Writing Process
      Basics of Public Speaking
      Briefing Preparation
      The Briefing
      Military Intelligence
      Purpose of Military Intelligence
      Types of Military Intelligence
      Command and Control
      The Military Intelligence Cycle
      Evolution of Military Intelligence
      Current State of Military Intelligence
      Intelligence Role of the Commander
      Role of the Military Intelligence Officer
      The "2 Section"
      Military Intelligence Assets
      Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield and Today’s Threat Structure
      Military Intelligence within the National Defense Structure
      United States Army
      United States Navy
      United States Marine Corps
      United States Air Force
      Criminal Intelligence and Crime Analysis
      History of Intelligence in Law Enforcement
      Law Enforcement and Intelligence
      Criminal Intelligence before the 9-11 Attacks
      Intelligence-Led Policing in the United States and the National Criminal
      Intelligence Sharing Plan
      Fusion Centers
      Crime Analysis
      Research behind Crime Analysis
      Types of Crime Analysis
      Criminal Investigative Analysis
      Geographic Profiling
      Threats and Challenges for the Twenty-first Century
      Natural Threats
      Illicit Drug Production and Distribution
      Border Security and Immigration Issues
      Transnational Organized Crime
      Human Trafficking
      Intellectual Property Theft
      Cyber Security
      Weapons Trafficking
      Failed States, Failing States, and Rogue Nations
      Future of Intelligence
      Forecasting the Future
      A Look Ahead
      Economic Trends
      Vision 2015: How the DNI Defines the Future
      Infrastructure and Technology

      Author Bio(s)

      Carl J. Jensen III, Ph.D., is the director of the University of Mississippi’s (UM) Center for Intelligence and Security Studies. He also is a member of UM’s Legal Studies Department and serves in an adjunct capacity as a senior behavioral scientist with the RAND Corporation. Dr. Jensen served as a special agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for 22 years; his FBI career included service as a field agent, a forensic examiner in the FBI Laboratory, and an instructor and assistant chief of the Behavioral Science Unit. He has published extensively and lectured throughout the world.

      David H. McElreath, Ph.D., has a background that includes service as professor and chair, Department of Legal Studies, University of Mississippi; professor and chair, Department of Criminal Justice, Washburn University; associate professor, Southeast Missouri State University; Colonel, United States Marine Corps; and Law Enforcement and Corrections positions with the Oxford (Mississippi) Police and Forrest County (Mississippi) Sheriff’s Department. He is the author of numerous publications on the criminal justice system.

      Melissa Graves, J.D., M.A., serves as project coordinator and instructor at the University of Mississippi’s Center for Intelligence and Security Studies. Among her other accomplishments, she and her codeveloper Walter Flaschka have designed and implemented the Days of Intrigue, a realistic practical exercise conducted yearly at UM that involves numerous intelligence community agencies. She is presently pursuing a Ph.D. in history. Ms. Graves has been admitted to the Bars of Texas and Washington.

      Editorial Reviews

      "The authors, all proven educators on national security issues, have effectively delivered on their objective … provides the student a clear understanding of the complexity of intelligence gathering and analysis."
      Security Management