Green Communications and Networking

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ISBN 9781439899137
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  • Covers green communications and networking exclusively, including wired networks, wireless networks, and the smart grid
  • Written by the experts in the field
  • Discusses recent advances in green communications and networking
  • Describes research challenges in green communications and networking
  • Includes a rich set of references in each chapter


Green Communications and Networking introduces novel solutions that can bring about significant reductions in energy consumption in the information and communication technology (ICT) industry—as well as other industries, including electric power. Containing the contributions of leading experts in the field, it examines the latest research advances in green communications and networking for next-generation wired, wireless, and smart-grid networks.

The book presents cutting-edge algorithms, protocols, and network architectures to improve energy efficiency in communication networks. It illustrates the various aspects of modeling, analysis, design, management, deployment, and optimization of algorithms, protocols, and architectures of green communications and networking. The text examines energy-efficient hardware platforms, physical layer, networking, and applications. Containing helpful references in each chapter, it also:

  • Proposes a mechanism for minimizing energy consumption of wireless networks without compromising QoS
  • Reviews recent development in utility communication networks, including advanced metering infrastructure and SCADA
  • Studies energy-efficient rate adaptation in long-distance wireless mesh networks
  • Considers the architectural design of energy-efficient wireline Internet nodes
  • Presents graph-theoretic solutions that can be adopted in an IP network to reduce the number of links used in the network during off-peak periods
  • Outlines a methodology for optimizing time averages in systems with variable length frames
  • Details a demand-based resources trading model for green communications

The book introduces a new solution for delivering green last-mile access: broadband wireless access with fiber-connected massively distributed antennas (BWA-FMDA). It also presents a methodology for optimizing time averages in systems with variable length frames. Surveying a representative number of demand and response methods in smart grids, the text supplies you with the understanding of smart grid dynamics needed to participate in the development of next-generation wireless cellular networks.

Table of Contents

Power-Efficient Last Mile Access Using Fiber-Connected Massively Distributed Antenna System
Evolution of Cellular Networks and Power Efficiency Considerations
     Power Consumption
     Traffic Density 
     Equipment Cost
     The Goals and Organization of This Chapter
BWA-FMDA Architecture 
     A Brief Background on RoF Solutions 
     Antenna Elements 
     Optical Communication Medium 
     Central Processing Entity
Power Consumption and Simulation Models 
     Power Consumption Model 
     Signaling Overhead 
     Simulation Model
Numerical Results
     Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz)
     Energy Efficiency (bit/Joule) 
     Tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency

Wireless Networks Resources Trading for QoS Performance Guaranteed Green Communications
Demanding-Based Communications Model
Resources Trading in Wireless Networks 
     Wireless Resource Trading 
     The Tradeoff between Energy and Bandwidth/Delay 
     The Tradeoff between Energy and the Number of Antennas
     The Tradeoff between Energy and Coding Schemes
Example-Case Study of Using Resource Trading in Cellular Networks
Example-Case Study of Using Resource Trading in Femtocell Networks 
     System Model
     Model for Energy Consumption in Downlink Channels 
     Spectrum Allocation for Green Radio 
     Simulations Results and Performance Analyses

Green Relay Techniques in Cellular Systems
Spectrum and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Relay-assisted Systems
     System Model 
     Spectrum Efficiency Analysis 
     Energy Efficiency Analysis 
     Insights and discussions
H-ARQ Relaying and H2-ARQ Relaying 
     H2-ARQ Relaying Strategy 
     Performance Analysis 
     Insights and Discussions
Energy Efficient RNs in Cellular Networks 
     Cellular System and Power Model 
     Optimization of RN Deployment 
     Outdoor-to-Indoor Relaying

Cross-layer Design and Optimization for Green Wireless Communications and Networking
Energy Efficient Design at Different Layers 
     Energy Efficient Hardware Platforms 
     Energy Efficient OS 
     Energy Efficient MAC 
     Energy Efficient Networking 
     Energy Efficient Application
Cross-layer Optimization in Energy Static Networks
     Network Model 
     Network Protocols
Cross-layer Designs in Energy Dynamic Networks 
     Hardware and Communication 

Energy-Efficient Rate Adaptation in Long-Distance Wireless Mesh Networks
Background: Long Distance Wireless Mesh Networks 
     Inter-link interference model 
     2PMAC Protocol
Overview: Rate Adaptation in Wireless Networks
ERAA: Rate Adaptation Algorithm for Outdoor Long Distance 802.11 Links
     Network Model and Operations 
     Design Overview 
     The Probing Stage 
     The Adapting Stage 
          Path Loss Calculation and RSSI Prediction 
          Energy Efficient Bit Rate Selection 
          CNP-CUSUM to Handle External Interference
     Performance Evaluation
          CNP-CUSUM: Interference Intensity Change Detection
          Rate Adaptation Performance
Concluding Remarks

Graph-Theoretic Algorithms for Energy Saving in IP Networks
Elements of the Graph Theory Used in GES 
     Shortest Path Tree 
     Edge between 
     Algebraic connectivity
ESACON algorithm
ESTOP algorithm
EAR algorithm
A practical example of GES application
Performance behavior of the GES algorithms 
     Path length increase 
     Percentage of links that are switched off 
     Power saving
     Impact in terms of traffic utilization
Practical implementation of the GES algorithms

Architectural Design of An Energy-Efficient Router
Opportunities and Challenges
Architecture of Green Reconfigurable Router 
Power Aware Routing through Green Traffic Engineering
     The General Problem Formulation 
     A Practical Heuristic
Rate Adaptive Processing inside Routers 
     Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling 
     Adaptive Link Rate Interface 
     A Multi-Frequency Scaling Prototype
Power Efficient Architectures for Router Functions 
     Routing Lookup 
     Packet Classifier 
     Packet Queuing 
     Traffic Manager

The Impact of Renewable Energy Sources in the CO2 Emissions of Converged Optical Network and Cloud Infrastructures
Energy Consumption Models for the Physical Infrastructure
     Optical Network Elements 
     Energy consumption models for computing resources
Energy aware VI planning
     VI Problem Formulation
Numerical Results

Low Power Dynamic Scheduling for Computing Systems
Task Scheduling with Processing Rate Constraints 
     Examples of Energy-Aware Processing 
     Time Averages as Ratios of Frame Averages
     Relation to Frame Average Expectations 
     An Example with One Task Class 
          No constraints 
          One Constraint 
     The Linear Fractional Program for Task Scheduling
     Virtual Queues 
     The Drift-Plus-Penalty Ratio 
          Bounding the Drift-Plus-Penalty Ratio
          The Task Scheduling Algorithm 
          Steps to minimize (9.24) 
          Performance of the Task Scheduling Algorithm 
Optimization with General Attributes 
     Mapping to the Task Scheduling Problem 
     The General Algorithm 
     Random Task Arrivals and Flow Control 
     The Dynamic Algorithm for Random Task Arrivals
     Deterministic Queue Bounds and Constraint Violation Bounds 
     Simulations and Adaptiveness of Random Task Scheduling
     Task Scheduling: Extensions and Further Reading 
     Exercises for Section 9.2
Reacting to Randomly Observed Events 
          Comparison of Algorithms 1 and 2 
     Efficient Computation and Transmission for a Wireless Smart Device 
     Exercises for Section 9.3

Smart Grid Communication Network and Its Applications
AMI and Its Applications 
     The AMI Infrastructure 
          The AMI Metering System 
          AMI Communication Network
          The Meter Data Management System 
     The Standardization of the AMI Infrastructure 
          The Standardization of AMI Communication Protocols 
          The Standardized AMI Information Model 
     Advanced DMS Applications 
          Distribution System State Estimation 
          Advanced Outage Management 
          Demand Response 
          Dependency on the AMI System
SCADA –The Utility Monitoring and Control Network and Its Applications 
     Components of SCADA 
          Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)
          Remote Terminal Units (RTU) 
          Automation Controllers 
     Communication Protocols in SCADA 
          Distributed Network Protocol 3 (DNP3)
          IEC 61850 
     Distribution Automation 
          Fault Detection, Isolation, and Service Restoration
          Voltage and Var Control

Demand and Response in Smart Grid
Demand and Response Overview 
     Significance of Demand Response 
     Demand Response in Traditional Grid
     New Requirements in Smart Grid
Representative DR Algorithms in Smart Grid 
     Customer Profit Optimization Algorithms
     Operation Cost of Electric Utility Reduction 
     Social Welfare Maximization
Summarize the DR Methods and Future Directions

Green Wireless Cellular Networks in the Smart Grid Environment
     GreenWireless Cellular Networks 
          Energy-Efficient Solutions 
          Key Trade-offs in the Network 
     Smart Grid 
          Demand-Side Management
System Models 
     Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) Communication
     Service Blocking Probability Model in the Cellular Network
     Electricity Consumption Model for Base Stations
Problem Formulation 
     Cellular Network Level Game 
     Smart Grid Level Game
Analysis of the Proposed Two-Level Game 
     Analysis of the Cellular Network Level Game 
     Analysis of the Smart Grid Level Game 
     Existence of Stackelberg Equilibrium for the Proposed Two-Level Game 
     Uniqueness of the Stackelberg Equilibrium for the Proposed Two-Level Game
Simulation Results and Discussions

Editor Bio(s)

About the Editors:

F. Richard Yu is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, School of Information Technology, at Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada. He received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, in 2003. From 2002 to 2004, he was with Ericsson, Lund, Sweden, where he worked on the research and development of third-generation cellular networks. From 2005 to 2006, he was with a startup company in California, where he worked on the research and development in the areas of advanced wireless communication technologies and new standards. He joined the School of Information Technology and the Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada, in 2007. His research interests include cross-layer design, security, and quality-of-service provisioning in wireless networks.

He received the Carleton Research Achievement Award in 2012, the Ontario Early Researcher Award in 2011, the Excellent Contribution Award at IEEE/IFIP TrustCom 2010, the Leadership Opportunity Fund Award from Canada Foundation of Innovation in 2009 and the Best Paper Awards at IEEE/IFIP TrustCom 2009 and Int’l Conference on Networking 2005. His research interests include cross-layer design, security and QoS provisioning in wireless networks.

Dr. Yu is a senior member of the IEEE. He serves on the editorial boards of several journals, including IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, ACM/Springer Wireless Networks, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications Networking, Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks, Wiley Journal on Security and Communication Networks, and International Journal of Wireless Communications and Networking, and a Guest Editor for IEEE Systems Journal for the special issue on Smart Grid Communications Systems. He has served on the Technical Program Committee (TPC) of numerous conferences, as the TPC Co-Chair of IEEE CCNC’13, INFOCOM-CCSES’2012, ICC-GCN’2012, VTC’2012S, Globecom’11, INFOCOM-GCN’2011, INFOCOM-CWCN’2010, IEEE IWCMC’2009, VTC’2008F andWiN-ITS’2007, as the Publication Chair of ICST QShine 2010, and the Co-Chair of ICUMT-CWCN’2009.

Xi Zhang received the B.S. and M.S. degrees from Xidian University, Xian, China, the M.S. degree from Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, all in electrical engineering and computer science, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and computer science (Electrical Engineering-Systems) from The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

He is currently an Associate Professor and the Founding Director of the Networking and Information Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station. He was an Assistant Professor and the Founding Director of the Division of Computer Systems Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Beijing Information Technology Engineering Institute, China, from 1984 to 1989. He was a Research Fellow with the School of Electrical Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, James Cook University, Australia, under a Fellowship from the Chinese National Commission of Education. He was with the Networks and Distributed Systems Research Department, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hills, NJ, and with AT&T Laboratories Research, Florham Park, NJ. He has published more than 200 research papers in the areas of wireless networks and communications systems, mobile computing, network protocol design and modeling, statistical communications, random signal processing, information theory, and control theory and systems.

Dr. Zhang received the U.S. National Science Foundation CAREER Award in 2004 for his research in the areas of mobile wireless and multicast networking and systems. He is an IEEE Communications Society Distinguished Lecturer. He received the Best Paper Awards in the IEEE GLOBECOM 2007, IEEE GLOBECOM 2009, and IEEE WCNC 2010, respectively. He also received the TEES Select Young Faculty Award for Excellence in Research Performance from the Dwight Look College of Engineering at Texas A&M University, College Station, in 2006. He is currently serving as an Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, an Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, a Guest Editor for the IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS for the special issue on BroadbandWireless Communications for High Speed Vehicles," a Guest Editor for the IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS for the special issue on Wireless Video Transmissions," an Associate Editor for the IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, a Guest Editor for the IEEE COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE for the special issue on Advances in Cooperative Wireless Networking," a Guest Editor for the IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE for the special issue on Next Generation of CDMA Versus OFDMA for 4G Wireless Applications," an Editor for the JOHN WILEYs Journal on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, an Editor for the Journal of Computer Systems, Networking, and Communications, an Associate Editor for the JOHN WILEYS Journal on Security and Communications Networks, an Area Editor for the ELSEVIER Journal on Computer Communications, and a Guest Editor for JOHN WILEYS Journal on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing for the special issue on next generation wireless communications and mobile computing. He has frequently served as the Panelist on the U.S. National Science Foundation Research-Proposal Review Panels. He is serving or has served as the Technical Program Committee (TPC) Co-Chair for the IEEE INFOCOM 2013, the TPC Chair for the IEEE GLOBECOM 2011, Area TPC Chair for the IEEE INFOCOM 2012, General Co-Chair for INFOCOM 2012 - Workshop on communications and Control for Sustainable Energy Systems: Green Networking and Smart Grids, TPC Co-Chair for IEEE ICC 2012 - Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, General Co-Chair for IEEE INOFOCOM 2011 - Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, TPC Co-Chair for the IEEE ICDCS 2011 - Workshop on Data Center Performance, Panels/Demos/Posters Chairs for the ACM MobiCom 2011, TPC Vice-Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2010, General Chair for the ACM QShine 2010, TPC Co-Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2009 Mini-Conference, TPC Co-Chair for IEEE GLOBECOM2008 -Wireless Communications Symposium, TPC Co-Chair for the IEEE ICC 2008 – Information and Network Security Symposium, Symposium Chair for IEEE/ACM International Cross-Layer Optimized Wireless Networks Symposium 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively, the TPC Chair for IEEE/ACM IWCMC 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively, the Demo/Poster Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2008, the Student Travel Grants Co-Chair for IEEE INFOCOM 2007, the General Chair for ACM QShine 2010, the Panel Co-Chair for IEEE ICCCN 2007, the Poster Chair for IEEE/ACMMSWiM 2007 and IEEE QShine 2006, Executive Committee Co-Chair for QShine, the Publicity Chair for IEEE/ACM QShine 2007 and IEEE WirelessCom 2005, and the Panelist on the Cross-Layer Optimized Wireless Networks and Multimedia Communications at IEEE ICCCN 2007 and WiFi-Hotspots/WLAN and QoS Panel at IEEE QShine 2004. He has served as the TPC members for more than 100 IEEE/ACM conferences, including IEEE INFOCOM, IEEE GLOBECOM, IEEE ICC, IEEE WCNC, IEEE VTC, IEEE/ACM QShine, IEEE WoWMoM, IEEE ICCCN, etc.

Victor C. M. Leung received the B.A.Sc. (Hons.) degree in electrical engineering from the University of British Columbia (U.B.C.) in 1977, and was awarded the APEBC Gold Medal as the head of the graduating class in the Faculty of Applied Science. He attended graduate school at U.B.C. on a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Postgraduate Scholarship and completed the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering in 1981.

From 1981 to 1987, Dr. Leung was a Senior Member of Technical Staff at MPR Teltech Ltd., specializing in the planning, design and analysis of satellite communication systems. In 1988, he started his academic career at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, where he was a Lecturer in the Department of Electronics. He returned to U.B.C. as a faculty member in 1989, currently holds the positions of Professor and TELUS Mobility Research Chair in Advanced Telecommunications Engineering in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He is a member of the Institute for Computing, Information and Cognitive Systems at U.B.C. He also holds adjunct/guest faculty appointments at Jilin University, Beijing Jiaotong University, South China University of Technology, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications. Dr. Leung has co-authored more than 500 technical papers in international journals and conference proceedings, and several of these papers had been selected for best paper awards.

His research interests are in the areas of architectural and protocol design, management algorithms and performance analysis for computer and telecommunication networks, with a current focus on wireless networks and mobile systems.

Dr. Leung is a registered professional engineer in the Province of British Columbia, Canada. He is a Fellow of IEEE, a Fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada, and a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering. He is a Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE Communications Society. He is serving on the editorial boards of the IEEE Transactions on Computers, IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, Computer Communications, the Journal of Communications and Networks, as well as several other journals. Previously, he has served on the editorial boards of the IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Wireless Communications Series, the IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications and the IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. He has guest-edited several journal special issues, and served on the technical program committee of numerous international conferences. He is a General Co-chair of GCSG Workshop at Infocom 2012, GCN Workshop at ICC 2012, CIT 2012, FutureTech 2012, CSA 2011. He is a TPC Co-chair of the MAC and Cross-layer Design track of IEEEWCNC 2012. He chaired the TPC of the wireless networking and cognitive radio track in IEEE VTC-fall 2008.

He was the General Chair of AdhocNets 2010, WC 2010, QShine 2007, and Symposium Chair for Next Generation Mobile Networks in IWCMC 2006-2008. He was a General Co-chair of Chinacom 2011, MobiWorld and GCN Workshops at IEEE Infocom 2011, BodyNets 2010, CWCN Workshop at Infocom 2010, ASIT Workshop at IEEE Globecom 2010, MobiWorld Workshop at IEEE CCNC 2010, IEEE EUC 2009 and ACM MSWiM 2006, and a TPC Vice-chair of IEEE WCNC 2005. He is a recipient of an IEEE Vancouver Section Centennial Award.