Structure and Properties of Fat Crystal Networks, Second Edition

Structure and Properties of Fat Crystal Networks, Second Edition

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Features

  • Presents the fundamentals of the physical properties of fats in a well-written, accessible book for both students and early-career researchers
  • Describes transitions between the fundamentals (thermodynamics and structures of fats) and applications (crystal network, microstructures of fats)
  • Includes laboratory protocols intended to characterize triglyceride crystallization, quantify the structure of crystallized systems, and the corresponding functionality
  • Contains a detailed methods chapter outlining step-by-step procedures to characterize the physical properties of fats
  • Reviews the relevant theory required to understand the physical properties of triglyceride mixtures

Summary

Lipid science and technology has grown exponentially since the turn of the millennium. The replacement of unhealthy fats in the foods we eat, and of petroleum-based ingredients in the cosmetics we use, is a top priority for consumers, government, and industry alike. Particularly for the food industry, removing trans fats and reducing saturated fat in foods has produced a major challenge: How do we create structure with a minimum amount of structuring material?

A comprehensive omnibus, Structure and Properties of Fat Crystal Networks, Second Edition clarifies the complex relationship between triglyceride composition of vegetable oils and fats, the physicochemical properties of triglycerides in simple and complex model systems, their crystallization, and melting behavior. Furthermore, it dives into the implications of these materials on the functional properties in food systems.

Replacing ingredients, optimizing functionality, and improving health necessitate the ability to relate the structural organization present in a material to macroscopic properties. Revisiting concepts and approaches used in the study of fat crystal networks, the second edition includes new developments, particularly intermolecular interactions, and thoroughly updated analytical methods. Succinct, clear, and complete, this book is designed to help students and early-career researchers make the study of fats a more focused, less frustrating, and less expensive endeavor.

Table of Contents

Review of Crystallography
Crystal Lattices
Lattices and Unit Cells
Miller Indices
Powder X-Ray Diffraction and Bragg’s Law
Typical Powder XRD Setup
Indexing Reflections
Crystallographic Structure of Fats

Nucleation, Crystal Growth, and Structural Implications
Introduction to Crystallization
Crystallization Kinetics
Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics and Microstructure
Nonisothermal Nucleation of Fats

Intermolecular Forces in Triacylglycerol Particles and Oils
David A. Pink
Introduction
Van der Waals Interactions
Mean Field Models
Van der Waals Interactions and Rheological Characteristics
X-Ray Scattering and Fractal Dimensions
Conclusion

Rheology of Solids
Hooke’s Law
Stress–Strain Relationships and Elastic
Types of Stresses and Corresponding
Elastic Behavior
Yield Value from Constant Force Cone
Rheology of Liquids
Types of Fluid Flow
Modeling Flow Behavior

Viscoelastic Behavior
Creep and Recovery/Stress Relaxation

Dynamic Methods

Microstructure and Nanostructure
Alejandro G. Marangoni, Suresh S. Narine, Nuria C. Acevedo, and Dongming Tang
Introduction
Mesoscale and Nanoscale in Fat Crystal Networks
Where Lies the Fractality in Fat Crystal Networks?
Conclusions

Yield Stress and Elastic Modulus of a Fat Crystal Network
Model

Liquid–Multiple Solid Phase Equilibria in Fats
Leendert H. Wesdorp, J.A. van Meeteren, S. de Jong, R. van der Giessen, P. Overbosch, P.A.M. Grootscholten, M. Struik, E. Royers, A. Don, Th. de Loos, C. Peters, and I. Gandasasmita
Introduction and Problem Definition
Approach to the Problem
Flash Calculations
Pure Component Properties
Mixing Behavior in Liquid State
Mixing Behavior in the α-Modification
Mixing Behavior in the β- and β-Modifications
Predicting Interaction Parameters
Practical Applications
Summary
List of Symbols
Appendix 9.A: Pure Component Data
Appendix 9.B: Specific Retention Volumes of Several Probes in Stationary Phases of Liquid TAGs
Appendix 9.C: Purity of the TAGs Used in Section 9.7
Appendix 9.D: Binary Phase Diagrams of TAGs: Data

Experimental Methodology
Rodrigo Campos
Introduction
Crystallization
Thermal Properties
Polymorphism
Microstructure
Mechanical Properties
Fractal Dimension
Oil Migration

Author Bio(s)

Alejandro G. Marangoni, Professor and Canada Research Chair, Food and Soft Materials Science, University of Guelph, ON, Canada. His work concentrates on the physical properties of foods, particularly fat crystallization and structure.

 
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