Electrical Contacts

Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition

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Features

  • Reflects the latest advances in electrical contact science and technology
  • Examines current research on contact corrosion, materials, and switching
  • Includes updates and revisions in each chapter, as well as up-to-date references and new figures and examples throughout
  • Delivers three new chapters on the effects of dust contamination, electronic sensing for switching systems, and contact phenomena for micro-electronic systems (MEMS) applications
  • Contains nearly 3,000 references, tables, equations, figures, drawings, and photographs
  • Brings together contributions from recognized experts in the field

Summary

Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switching devices, including the interruption of AC and DC circuits with currents in the range 10mA to 100kA and circuits up to 1000V, and describes arc formation between open contacts and between opening contacts. Arcing effects on contacts such as erosion, welding, and contamination are also addressed.

Containing nearly 3,000 references, tables, equations, figures, drawings, and photographs, the book provides practical examples encompassing everything from electronic circuits to high power circuits, or microamperes to mega amperes. The new edition:

  • Reflects the latest advances in electrical contact science and technology
  • Examines current research on contact corrosion, materials, and switching
  • Includes updates and revisions in each chapter, as well as up-to-date references and new figures and examples throughout
  • Delivers three new chapters on the effects of dust contamination, electronic sensing for switching systems, and contact phenomena for micro-electronic systems (MEMS) applications

With contributions from recognized experts in the field, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition assists practicing scientists and engineers in the prevention of costly system failures, as well as offers a comprehensive introduction to the subject for technology graduate students, by expanding their knowledge of electrical contact phenomena.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Introduction
Editor
Contributors
Contact Interface Conduction
Electrical Contact Resistance: Fundamental Principles
Roland S. Timsit
Introduction
Electrical Constriction Resistance
Effect of Surface Films on Constriction and Contact Resistance
Temperature of an Electrically Heated a-Spot
Mechanics of a-Spot Formation
Breakdown of Classical Electrical Contact Theory in Small Contact Spots
Constriction Resistance at High Frequencies
Summary
Acknowledgements
References
Introduction to Contact Tarnishing and Corrosion
Paul G. Slade
Introduction
Corrosion Rates
Corrosion Gases
Types of Corrosion
Gas Concentrations in the Atmosphere
Measurements
Mixed Flow Gas Laboratory Testing
Electronic Connectors
Power Connectors
Other Considerations
Acknowledgements
References
Gas Corrosion
William H. Abbott and Paul G. Slade
Introduction
The Field Environments for Electrical Contacts
Laboratory Accelerated Testing
Lubrication and Inhibition of Corrosion
Acknowledgement
References
Effect of Dust Contamination on Electrical Contacts
Ji Gao Zhang
Introduction
Dusty Environment and Dust Composition
The Characteristics of Dust Particles
Application Conditions in Dusty Environment
Theoretical Analysis of Connector Contact Failure due to the Dust
Future Work
References
Nonarcing Contacts
Power Connectors
Milenko Braunovic
Introduction
Types of Power Connectors
Properties of Conductor and Connector Materials
Parameters Affecting Performance of Power Connections
Palliative Measures
Connector Degradation
Prognostic Models
Shape-Memory Alloys (SMA)
Metal Foam Materials
Installation of Power Connections
Accelerated Current-Cycling Tests (Standards)
References
Low-Power Commercial, Automotive, and Appliance Connections
Anthony Lee and George Drew
Introduction
Connectors
Contact Terminals
Degradation of Connector Contact
Automotive Connector Contacts
Summary
References
Tribology of Electronic Connectors: Contact Sliding Wear, Fretting, and Lubrication
Roland S. Timsit and Morton Antler
Introduction
Sliding Wear
Fretting
Lubrication
References
Materials, Coatings, and Platings
Morton Antler and Paul G. Slade
Introduction
Metallic Finishes
Properties Related to Porosity
Metallurgical and Structural Properties
Physical and Mechanical Properties
Acknowledgement
References
The Electric Arc and Switching Device Technology
The Arc and Interruption
Paul G. Slade
Introduction
The Fourth State of Matter
Establishing an Arc
The Formation of the Electric Arc
The Arc in Air at Atmospheric Pressure
The Arc in Vacuum
Arc Interruption
Acknowledgements
References
The Consequences of Arcing
Paul G. Slade
Introduction
Arcing Time
Arc Erosion of Electrical Contacts
Blow-Off Force
Contact Welding
Changes in the Contact Surface as a Result of Arcing
Acknowledgements
References
Reed Switches
Kunio Hinohara
Principles and Design of the Reed Switch
Recommended Contact Plating
Contact Surface Degradation and Countermeasures
Applications of Reed Switches
References
Low Current and High Frequency Miniature Switches: Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Metal Contact Switches
Benjamin F. Toler, Ronald A. Couti, Jr., and John W. McBride
Introduction
Micro-Contact Resistance Modeling
Contact Materials for Performance and Reliability
Failure Modes and Reliability
Conclusion
References
Low Current Switching
John W. McBride
Introduction and Device Classification
Device Types
Design Parameters for Static Switching Contacts
Mechanical Design Parameters
The Measurement of Contact Wear and Contact Dynamics
Electrical Characteristics of Low-Current Switching Devices at Opening
Electrical Characteristics of Low-Current Switching Devices at Closure
Summary
Acknowledgements
References
Medium to High Current Switching: Low Voltage Contractors and Circuit Breakers, and Vacuum Interrupters
Manfred Lindmayer
General Aspects of Switching in Air
Contacts for Switching in Air
Low-Voltage Contactors
Low-Voltage Circuit-Breakers and Miniature Circuit-Breakers
Simulations of Low-Voltage Switching Devices
Vacuum Interrupters
References
Arc Faults and Electrical Safety
John J. Shea
Introduction
Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCIs)
Arcing Faults
Glowing Connections
Arcing Fault Properties
Other Types of Arcing Faults
Conclusions
References
Arcing Contact Materials
Arcing Contact Materials
Gerald J. Witter
Introduction
Silver Metal Oxides
Silver Refractory Metals
Vacuum Interrupter Materials
Tungsten Contacts
Non-Noble Silver Alloys
Silver-Nickel Contact Materials
Silver Alloys and Noble Metals
Silver-Graphite Contact Materials
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Contact Design and Attachment
Gerald J. Witter and Guenther Horn
Introduction
Staked Contact Assembly Designs
Welded Contact Assembly Designs
Brazed Contact Assembly Designs
Clad Metals, Inlay, and Edge Lay
Contact Alloys for Non-Arcing Separable Contacts
Acknowledgements
References
Electrical Contact Material Testing Design and Measurement
Gerald J. Witter and Werner Rieder
Objectives
Device Testing and Model Switch Testing
Electrical Contact Testing Variables
Electrical Testing Result Types and Measurement Methods
References
Arc Interactions with Contaminants
Gerald J. Witter and Werner Rieder
Introduction
Organic Contamination and Activation
Mineral Particulate Contamination of Arcing Contacts
Silicone Contamination of Arcing Contacts
Lubricants with Refractory Fillers
Oxidation of Contact Materials
Resistance Effects from Long Arcs
Acknowledgements
References
Sliding Electrical Contacts
Sliding Electrical Contacts (Graphitic Type Lubrication)
Kiochiro Sawa and Erle I. Shobert II
Introduction
Mechanical Aspects
Chemical Aspects
Electrical Effects
Thermal Effects
Brush Wear
Brush Materials and Abrasion
Summary
References
Illustrative Modern Brush Applications
Wilferd E. Yohe and William A. Nystrom
Introduction
Brush Materials
Brush Applications
Sliding Contacts for Instrumentation and Control
Glenn Dorsey and Jax Glossbrenner
Introduction
Sliding Contact—The Micro Perspective
Electrical Performance
Micro-Environment of Contact Region
Macro Sliding Contact
Materials for Sliding Contacts
Friction and Wear Characteristics
Contact Parameters and Sliding-Contact Assemblies
Future
Summary
Acknowledgements
References
Metal Fiber Brushes
Glenn Dorsey and Doris Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf
Introduction
Sliding Wear of Multi-Fiber Brushes
Surface Films, Friction, and Materials Properties
Electrical Contact
Brush Dynamics
Future
Summary
Acknowledgements
References
Contact Data
Useful Electric Contact Information
Paul G. Slade
Introduction
Notes to the Tables
References
Author Index
Subject Index

Editor Bio(s)

Paul G. Slade began his studies in the fascinating world of electrical contacts as a graduate student at the University of Wales, Cardiff, UK in the mid-1960s. Since that time, he has been involved with electrical contacts both as a research scientist and as a developer of switching components. Currently retired, he ended his five decades of experience in electrical contact research first at the Westinghouse R &D Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and then at the Eaton Corporation’s Vacuum Interrupter Factory, Horseheads, New York, USA.

 
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