Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties, Second Edition

Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties, Second Edition

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Features

  • Provides well-balanced coverage of rock and fluid properties, supplemented with key references, laboratory methods, and graphical illustrations
  • Builds a strong foundation in petroleum engineering
  • Presents recombination calculations for determining live reservoir fluid composition, the LBC method for determining viscosity, and the parachor method for determining interfacial tension
  • Includes solved examples as well as both concept- and computation-based homework problems in most chapters

A solutions manual and PowerPoint® slides are available upon qualifying course adoption.

Summary

A strong foundation in reservoir rock and fluid properties is the backbone of almost all the activities in the petroleum industry. Suitable for undergraduate students in petroleum engineering, Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties, Second Edition offers a well-balanced, in-depth treatment of the fundamental concepts and practical aspects that encompass this vast discipline.

New to the Second Edition

  • Introductions to Stone II three-phase relative permeability model and unconventional oil and gas resources
  • Discussions on low salinity water injection, saturated reservoirs and production trends of five reservoir fluids, impact of mud filtrate invasion and heavy organics on samples, and flow assurance problems due to solid components of petroleum
  • Better plots for determining oil and water Corey exponents from relative permeability data
  • Inclusion of Rachford-Rice flash function, Plateau equation, and skin effect
  • Improved introduction to reservoir rock and fluid properties
  • Practice problems covering porosity, combined matrix-channel and matrix-fracture permeability, radial flow equations, drilling muds on fluid saturation, wettability concepts, three-phase oil relative permeability, petroleum reservoir fluids, various phase behavior concepts, phase behavior of five reservoir fluids, and recombined fluid composition
  • Detailed solved examples on absolute permeability, live reservoir fluid composition, true boiling point extended plus fractions properties, viscosity based on compositional data, and gas-liquid surface tension

Accessible to anyone with an engineering background, the text reveals the importance of understanding rock and fluid properties in petroleum engineering. Key literature references, mathematical expressions, and laboratory measurement techniques illustrate the correlations and influence between the various properties. Explaining how to acquire accurate and reliable data, the author describes coring and fluid sampling methods, issues related to handling samples for core analyses, and PVT studies. He also highlights core and phase behavior analysis using laboratory tests and calculations to elucidate a wide range of properties.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluids
Formation of Petroleum Reservoirs
Typical Characteristics of Petroleum Reservoirs
Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources
Significance of Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties

Preamble to Petroleum Reservoir Rock Properties
Introduction
Coring Methods
Important Issues Related to Coring Methods
Types of Cores
Allocation of Core Data for Measurement of Reservoir Rock Properties
Handling of Reservoir Rock Core Samples
Types of Core Tests

Porosity
Significance and Definition
Types of Porosities
Classification of Porosity
Parameters That Influence Porosity
Laboratory Measurement of Porosity
Nonconventional Methods of Porosity Measurements
Averaging of Porosity
Examples of Typical Porosities

Absolute Permeability
Significance and Definition
Mathematical Expression of Permeability: Darcy’s Law
Dimensional Analysis of Permeability and Definition of a Darcy
Application of Darcy’s Law to Inclined Flow and Radial Flow
Averaging of Permeabilities
Permeability of Fractures and Channels
Darcy’s Law in Field Units
Laboratory Measurement of Absolute Permeability
Factors Affecting Absolute Permeability
Porosity and Permeability Relationships
Permeabilities of Different Types of Rocks

Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Reservoir Rocks
Introduction
Mechanical Properties
Electrical Properties

Fluid Saturation
Significance and Definition
Distribution of Fluid Saturation in a Petroleum Reservoir
Definition and Mathematical Expressions for Fluid Maturation
Reservoir Rock Samples Used for Fluid Saturation Determination
Laboratory Measurement of Fluid Saturation
Assessing the Validity of Fluid Saturation Data Measured on the Plug-End Trim for the Core Plug Sample
Special Types of Fluid Saturations
Saturation Averaging
Factors Affecting Fluid Saturation Determination

Interfacial Tension and Wettability
Introduction and Fundamental Concepts
Interfacial and Surface Tension
Wettability
Fundamental Concepts of Wettability
Discussion on Practical Aspects of Wettability
Measurement of Reservoir Rock Wettability
Factors Affecting Wettability
Relationship between Wettability and Irreducible Water Saturation and Residual Oil Saturation

Capillary Pressure
Introduction
Basic Mathematical Expression of Capillary Pressure
The Rise of Liquid in Capillaries and the Plateau Equation
Dependence of Capillary Pressure on Rock and Fluid Properties
Capillary Pressure and Saturation History
Laboratory Measurement of Capillary Pressure
Characteristics of Capillary Pressure Curves
Converting Laboratory Capillary Pressure Data to Reservoir Conditions
Averaging Capillary Pressure: J Function
Calculation of Permeability from Capillary Pressure
Effect of Wettability on Capillary Pressure
Practical Application of Capillary Pressure

Relative Permeability
Fundamental Concepts of Relative Permeability
Mathematical Expressions for Relative Permeability
Salient Features of Gas–Oil and Water–Oil Relative Permeability Curves Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability Determination of Relative Permeability from Capillary Pressure Data Factors Affecting Relative Permeability Measurements Peculiarities of Relative Permeability Data Assessing the Validity of Relative Permeability Data and Determination of Corey Exponents Significance of Relative Permeability Data Three-Phase Relative Permeability

Introduction to Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
Introduction
Chemistry of Petroleum
Solid Components of Petroleum
Classification of Reservoir Gases and Oils
Five Reservoir Fluids
Other Hydrocarbon Fluids of Interest
Formation Waters

Introduction to Phase Behavior
Introduction
Definition of Terms Used in Phase Behavior
Phase Behavior of a Pure Component
Phase Behavior of Two-Component or Binary Systems
Phase Behavior of Multicomponent Mixtures
Construction of Phase Envelopes

Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
Introduction
Preamble to the Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
Brief Description of the Plus Fraction
Classification and Identification of Fluid Type
Black Oils
Volatile Oils
Gas Condensates
Wet Gases
Dry Gases
Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids in the Two-Phase Region
Saturated Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
Production Trends of Five Reservoir Fluids

Sampling of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
Introduction
Practical Considerations of Fluid Sampling
Methods of Fluid Sampling
Evaluating the Representativity of Fluid Samples: Quality Checks
Factors Affecting Sample Representativity

Compositional Analysis of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
Introduction
Strategy of Compositional Analysis
Characteristics of Reservoir Fluid Composition
Gas Chromatography
True Boiling-Point Distillation
Characterization of Pseudo Fractions and Residue
Other Nonconventional Methods of Compositional Analysis

PVT Analysis and Reservoir Fluid Properties
Introduction
Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
Laboratory Tests
Adjustment of Black Oil Laboratory Data
Other Sources of Obtaining the Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids

Vapor–Liquid Equilibria
Introduction
Ideal Mixtures
Empirical Correlations for Calculating Equilibrium Ratios for Real Solutions
Equations-of-State Models
Use of EOS Models in PVT Packages

Properties of Formation Waters
Introduction
Compositional Characteristics of Formation Waters
Bubble-Point Pressure of Formation Water
Formation Volume Factor of Formation Water
Density of Formation Water
Viscosity of Formation Water
Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Formation Water
Solubility of Formation Water in Hydrocarbons
Compressibility of Formation Water

Author Bio(s)

Abhijit Y. Dandekar is a professor of petroleum engineering at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. An active member of SPE, Dr. Dandekar is the author or coauthor of over 30 peer-reviewed technical papers, over 45 technical conference papers, and numerous research reports in areas as diverse as special core analysis, PVT and phase behavior, gas-to-liquids, gas hydrates, viscous oils, wettability alteration, and CO2 sequestration. He received his PhD in petroleum engineering from Heriot-Watt University.

Editorial Reviews

I adopted Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties for my course a few years back, and I still believe it is a good compromise between topic coverage and depth. … This book is an excellent gateway for engineers and scientists in training to understand fundamental petroleum reservoir rock and fluid properties. Prof. Dandekar presents a broad collection of topics, practice problems, and measurements techniques aimed to acquaint students with classic concepts, as well as traditional and modern measurement techniques.
—Zuleima T. Karpyn, The Pennsylvania State University

The author has provided very detailed information based on his extensive hands-on experience. Easy to read and understand, like sitting in his lectures. Starting from basic and easy materials and gradually moving to more difficult and applied concepts. Plenty of examples and case studies. The other point of strength is that the author covers both rock and fluid aspects in petroleum engineering. This is not only very useful for people who are interested in both topics, but also for people who are interested in only rock or fluid aspects, as they can go over the other aspect which gives them plenty of useful/relevant information which will enrich their understanding and/or lectures. A very good book suitable for both students and lecturers with plenty of worked examples and problems.
—Bahman Tohidi, Heriot-Watt University

Good continuity, easy to understand for an undergraduate student. Well illustrated and can also be used as a reference for practical work. … Material is well organized. The book may be appropriate as a textbook for a course like properties of rocks.
—Pradeep B. Jadhav, Maharashtra Institute of Technology

Praise for the First Edition:
An absolutely first-class piece of writing … a very full and solid work that is bound to stand as a reliable textbook for students and an essential reference for engineers. … of inestimable value to the target audience ... enormously valuable ... as an immediate on-the-spot reference to those already well immersed in the field. … No one writing about this subject for students in the future will be able to ignore this graceful and probing book so imaginatively organized.
Current Engineering Practice, Vol. 48, No. 5-6, 2006

 
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