The IFPUG Guide to IT and Software Measurement

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  • Illustrates software measurement's role in new technologies, including cloud computing
  • Addresses the impact of agile development on software measurement
  • Presents measurement as a powerful tool for auditing and accountability
  • Covers project ROI and value stream mapping
  • Includes metrics for the CIO


The widespread deployment of millions of current and emerging software applications has placed software economic studies among the most critical of any form of business analysis. Unfortunately, a lack of an integrated suite of metrics makes software economic analysis extremely difficult.

The International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG), a nonprofit and member-governed organization, has become the recognized leader in promoting the effective management of application software development and maintenance activities. The IFPUG Guide to IT and Software Measurement brings together 52 leading software measurement experts from 13 different countries who share their insights and expertise. Covering measurement programs, function points in measurement, new technologies, and metrics analysis, this volume:

  • Illustrates software measurement's role in new and emerging technologies
  • Addresses the impact of agile development on software measurement
  • Presents measurement as a powerful tool for auditing and accountability
  • Includes metrics for the CIO

Edited by IFPUG's Management and Reporting Committee, the text is useful for IT project managers, process improvement specialists, measurement professionals, and business professionals who need to interact with IT professionals and participate in IT decision-making. It includes coverage of cloud computing, agile development, quantitative project management, process improvement, measurement as a tool in accountability, project ROI measurement, metrics for the CIO, value stream mapping, and benchmarking.

Table of Contents

Insights from the Experts: Introduction; Janet Russac
A Proposed Suite of Thirteen Functional Metrics for Economic Analysis; Capers Jones
A Guide to Sizing and Estimating Projects Using International Function Point Users Group Function Points; David Garmus

Benchmarking: Introduction; Pierre Almén
Acquiring External Benchmark Data; Heidi Malkiewicz and Lori Mayer
Effective Applications Development and Maintenance and Support Benchmarking; Pam Morris
Benchmarking Techniques and Their Applications in IT and Software Measurement; Nishant Pandey

Estimation: Introduction; Luigi Buglione
Effort Estimation for Software Projects; Murali Chemuturi
Software and Web Effort Estimation via Predictive and Diagnostic Reasoning; Emilia Mendes
An Experience in Estimating Software Testing Effort; Luiz Flávio Santos Ribeiro
Producing Reliable Estimates through Quantitative Uncertainty Assessment; Luca Santillo
Optimism in Cost Estimation; Ricardo Valerdi

Function Points: Introduction; Sivasubramanyam Balasubramanyam
The 13 Mistakes of Function Point Counting; Claudia Hazan
Facilitating Function Point Counts: How to Ask the "Right" Questions and Get the "Right" Answers for an Accurate Count in an Efficient Manner; Lori Holmes

Measurement Programs: Introduction; Dawn Coley
Measurement of Business Intelligence; Jan-Paul Fillié
Case Studies in Measurement Based Decision Making; Scott Goldfarb
Measurement and Motivation; Tara Kelly
Achieving Business Objectives: Building a Software Metrics Support Structure; Jim Mayes

Metrics for the CIO—Business Value: Introduction; Pierre Almén
Maximizing Value: Understanding Metrics Paradoxes through Use of Transformation; Paul Below
Objective-Driven Process Improvement: Connecting Improvement with Business Objectives; Christof Ebert
A Framework for Implementing an Effective Software Development and Maintenance Metrics Program; Miranda L. Mason
Deriving Business Value Measures for Business Initiatives; Stavros Pechlivanidis

New Technologies and Environments: Introduction; Sivasubramanyam Balasubramanyam
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Function Point Analysis: A Possible Approach and a Practical Experience; Loredana Frallicciardi
Mobile Applications, Functional Analysis, and the Customer Experience; Tammy Preuss
Cloud Computing Solution Measurement; Steven Woodward

Non-Functional and Agile: Introduction; Luigi Buglione
Software Measurement and Agile Development; Raymond Boehm
Agile Estimation Using Functional Metrics; Thomas M. Cagley Jr.
Software Non-Functional Assessment Process; Christine Green, Dan Bradley, Talmon Ben-Cnaan, Wendy Bloomfield, David Garmus, Jalaja Venkat, Steve Chizar, and Luca Santillo

Outsourcing: Introduction; Sivasubramanyam Balasubramanyam
SOS —Application Quality Issues!; Pierre Almén
Software Measurement and Service Levels; Barbara Beech
Software Measurement in Procurement Contracts; Roberto Meli
Request for Proposal Management: Answering Metrics-Based Bids; Harold van Heeringen

Process Improvement: Introduction; Pierre Almén
Software Measurements: Effective Utilization of Software Testing Measurements; Talmon Ben-Cnaan
A Framework to Implement Statistical Process Control; Márcio Silveira
Human Performance Improvement: Measuring the Real Change of Process Improvement; Sheila P. Dennis and Patricia A. Eglin
Understanding Your Organization’s Best Software Development Practices; David Herron
Process Improvement; Steve Neuendorf
Defects: Perspective on Prevalence and Prevention; Joseph R. Schofield, Jr.

Productivity: Introduction; Dawn Coley
How to Improve Your Development Process Using the Indicator of Productivity; Eduardo Alves de Oliveira
Monitoring Productivity Using Function Points in Various Phases; Radhika Srinivas

Project Management: Introduction; Dawn Coley
Project Management and Measurement: What Relationship?; Luigi Buglione
Project Scope Management with Function Points: Achieving Olympic Success on Software Intensive Projects with Scope Management; Carol A. Dekkers
Scope Management Technique Using Sizing Process; Christine Green
Quantitative Project Management—Measurement-Based Techniques for Managing Scope; Robyn Lawrie
Requirements: Building a Solid Foundation for a Successful Project; Janet Harris Russac


Editor Bio(s)

The International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG) is a nonprofit, member-governed organization. The mission of IFPUG is to be a recognized leader in promoting and encouraging the effective management of application software development and maintenance activities through the use of Function Point Analysis (FPA) and other software measurement techniques. IFPUG endorses FPA as its standard methodology for software functional sizing. In support of this, IFPUG maintains the Function Point Counting Practices Manual (CPM), the recognized industry standard for FPA. In order to complement the functional aspect of measuring software size, in 2011 the Assessment Practices Manual (APM) was released by IFPUG. The APM provides a quantifiable measure for the non-functional size of software development by means of documented guidance, definitions, and practices about non-functional software features and related sizing criteria. The chapter within this book titled "Software Non-functional Assessment Process (SNAP)" introduces the concept.

IFPUG also provides a forum for networking and information exchange that promotes and encourages the use of software product and process metrics. For further information on IFPUG, please visit

Editorial Reviews

Without statistical evidence, we cannot make claims of the use of best practices. We must measure, we must apply appropriate and useful metrics, we must collect and analyze what we measure, and we must learn from the results of that analysis. This book is an important contributor to the promotion and application of software measurement.

When Allan Albrecht developed the idea of Function Points in the late 1970s, he probably did not envisage their use across the world thirty-plus years later. … the International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG), formed to administer and grow what he started, continues to find new ways to educate people about the importance and use of software measurement, metrics, and management. This book, IFPUG’s second, is a vital component in their education offensive.

Although the themes running through the chapters in this book are measurement and metrics, the application of these themes is to the practical issues faced by project managers, CIOs, sales people, testers, QA personnel, outsourcers, bid evaluators, and IT managers. This volume should be a close-at-hand reference for all these people.
—Peter R. Hill, CEO of the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group Limited