Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment

Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment: Principles and Calculations

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Features

  • Covers the fundamentals of health, safety, and accident management and their application to real-world environmental problems
  • Examines human reaction to environmental accidents: risk identification, toxicology/dose-response, and exposure assessment
  • Addresses emergency preparedness and response related to environmental accidents for first responders
  • Offers guidance on the latest environmental regulations
  • Includes numerous case studies and illustrative examples drawn from real-world experiences and applications

Summary

Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment: Principles and Calculations explains how to evaluate and apply environmental health and hazard risk assessment calculations in a variety of real-life settings. Using a wealth of examples and case studies, the book helps readers develop both a theoretical understanding and a working knowledge of the principles of health, safety, and accident management. 

Learn the Fundamentals of Health, Safety, and Accident Management

The book takes a pragmatic approach to risk assessment, identifying problems and outlining solutions. Organized into four parts, the text:

  • Presents an overview of the history of environmental health and hazard problems, legal considerations, and emergency planning and response
  • Tackles the broad subject of health risk assessment, discussing toxicology, exposure, and health risk characterization
  • Examines hazard risk assessment in significant detail—from problem identification, probability, consequence, and characterization of hazards/accidents to the fundamentals of applicable statistics theory
  • Uses case studies to demonstrate the applications and calculations of risk analysis for real systems

Incorporate Health and Safety in Process Design

The book assumes only a basic background in physics, chemistry, and mathematics, making it suitable for students and those new to the field. It is also a valuable reference for practicing engineers, scientists, technicians, technical managers, and others tasked with ensuring that plant and equipment operations meet applicable standards and regulations. A clear and comprehensive resource, this book offers guidance for those who want to reduce or eliminate the environmental health effects and accidents that can result in loss of life, materials, and property.

Table of Contents

Part I Introductory Comments

About the Book
Why Use Risk-Based Decision Making?
Book Contents
Definitions
Risk Terms
Financial Risk

History of Environmental Health Problems
First Humans
Development of Agriculture
Colonization of the New World
Industrial Revolution

History of Environmental Hazard Problems
Early Accidents
Recent Major Accidents
Major Accidents in the Twenty-First Century
Advances in Safety Features

Health Risk versus Hazard Risk
Introduction to the Health Risk Assessment Process
Introduction to the Hazard Risk Assessment Process
Qualitative Risk Scenarios
What Are the Differences?
Uncertainty Factors
Future Trends in Environmental Risk Assessment

Environmental Regulatory Framework
Regulatory System
Laws and Regulations: The Differences
Role of the States
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Major Toxic Chemical Laws Administered by the U.S. EPA
Legislative Tools for Controlling Water Pollution
Oil Pollution Act
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA) of 1986
Clean Air Act
Occupational Safety and Health Act
EPA’s Risk Management Program
Pollution Prevention Act of 1990

Emergency Planning and Response
Need for Emergency Response Planning
Planning Committee
Hazards Survey
Plan for Emergencies
Training of Personnel
Notification of Public and Regulatory Officials
Plan Implementation
Other State Regulatory Initiatives
Illustrative Examples

Part II Health Risk Assessment

Introduction to Health Risk Assessment
Health Risk Evaluation Process
Health Problem Identification
Toxicology and Dose–Response
Exposure Assessment
Health Risk Characterization

Health Problem Identification
Toxicology Principles
Epidemiology Principles
Molecular/Atomic Structural Analysis
Material Safety Data Sheets
Engineering Problem Solving
Fate of Chemicals in the Environment Related to Health Problems
Carcinogens versus Noncarcinogens

Toxicity and Dose–Response
Definitions
Toxicology
Epidemiology
Noncarcinogens
Carcinogens
Uncertainties/Limitations

Exposure Assessment
Components of an Exposure Assessment
Dispersion in Water Systems
Dispersion in Soils
Dispersion in the Atmosphere

Health Risk Characterization
Qualitative Health Risk Scenarios
Quantitative Risk: Noncarcinogens
Quantitative Risk: Carcinogens
Risk Uncertainties/Limitations
Risk-Based Decision Making
Public Perception of Risk

Part III Hazard Risk Assessment

Introduction to Hazard Risk Assessment
Risk Evaluation Process for Accidents
Hazard Identification
Probability and Causes of Accidents
Consequences of Accidents
Hazard Risk Characterization

Hazard/Event Problem Identification
Process Equipment
Classification of Accidents
Fires, Explosions, Toxic Emissions, and Hazardous Spills
Hazard Event Evaluation Techniques

Hazard/Event Probability
Accident Causes
Series and Parallel Systems
Probability Distributions
Weibull Distribution
Fault Tree Analysis

Hazard/Event Consequences
Accident Minimization/Prevention
Consequence Estimation
Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
Vulnerability Analysis
Event Tree Analysis

Hazard Risk Characterization
Risk Characterization
Public Perception of Risk
Risk Communication
Cause–Consequence Analysis
Qualitative Hazard Risk Assessment
Uncertainties/Limitations
Quantitative Hazard Risk Assessment

Part IV Case Studies

Case for Case Studies
Case Study Criteria: Is It Logical, Relevant, and Reasonable?
Preparing a Case Study Solution

Monte Carlo Simulation
Case Study 1: Time to Pump Failure
Case Study 2: Time to Failure of Two Electrical Components
Case Study 3: Nuclear Plant Temperature Gauge Lifetime
Case Study 4: Bus Section Failures in Electrostatic
Precipitators

Emergency Planning and Response
Case Study 1: Terrorist Attack of a Pharmaceutical Company’s Plant in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, New York
Case Study 2: Terrorist Attack of the Brooklyn Navy Yard in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, New York
Case Study 3: Plans to Counter the Possibility of a Process or Plant-Related Accident at the "Wedo" Chemical Facility in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York
Case Study 4: Dilution Ventilation Models

Natural Disasters
Case Study 1: Hurricanes
Case Study 2: Floods
Case Study 3: Earthquakes
Case Study 4: Meteorites
Case Study 5: Combined Hurricanes and Flooding

Industrial Accidents
Case Study 1: Nanochemical Plant Accident
Case Study 2: Caustic Tank Preliminary Hazard Analysis
Case Study 3: Transportation of Hazardous Chemicals
Case Study 4: Offshore Rig Accident

Afterword

Index

Chapters include an introduction and references.

Editorial Reviews

"… should be part of any public health library. … highly recommended for use by risk/hazard assessors, regulatory officials, industry risk/hazard managers, environmental science/health students, public health practitioners, and readers of HERA. Kudos to the authors for preparing such a useful and fulfilling book."
—Barry L. Johnson, Ph.D., Managing Editor, Journal of Human and Ecological Risk Assessment

"This reader-friendly text is excellently written and unique in the breadth, depth and application of the subject. It is brought to life and made very understandable via the illustrative examples. This would be my first choice when recommending a text to someone interested in discovering what environmental risk is all about."
—John D. McKenna, Ph.D., Principal, ETS, INC, Roanoke, Virginia, USA

"Such a calculation-based book was sorely needed ... a ‘must’ for any technical library."
—Anthony Buonicore, P.E., BCEE, QEP, Principal, Buonicore Partners, LLC, Connecticut, USA

"This is the definitive book on environmental risk. The book addresses critically needed regulatory issues, the case studies illustrating the magnitude of risk associated with resource management industries such as coal mines, the BP oil disaster, [and] natural disasters. ... The problems and solutions will be very valuable to readers to further understand the concept of health risk and hazardous risk and its management. It has excellent illustrative examples that range from real-world applications to a hypothetical meteorite collision. This will be a very valuable textbook for students as well as a reference book for engineers, scientists and regulatory personnel."
—Kumar Ganesan, Professor and Head, Department of Environmental Engineering, Montana Tech, USA

"This book is easy to read and is loaded with over 200 well-thought-out illustrative examples of risk assessment that complement the theory and provide appropriate practical applications. This is a wonderful book that will serve both students and graduates well."
—Leo Stander, PE, BCEE, Cary, North Carolina, USA