Database Design Using Entity-Relationship Diagrams, Second Edition

Database Design Using Entity-Relationship Diagrams, Second Edition

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Features

  • Demonstrates testing of a newly-constructed database via the theory of normal forms and referential integrity constraints
  • Provides a data modeling schema that defines entities, relationships, attributes
  • Discusses structural constraints in relationships
  • Includes corresponding grammar and mapping rules
  • Explores generalizations and specializations
  • Illustrates a reverse mapping design for mapping a relational database backward to an ER diagram--performed when database is in use but no diagram exists

Summary

Essential to database design, entity-relationship (ER) diagrams are known for their usefulness in mapping out clear database designs. They are also well-known for being difficult to master. With Database Design Using Entity-Relationship Diagrams, Second Edition, database designers, developers, and students preparing to enter the field can quickly learn the ins and outs of ER diagramming.

Building on the success of the bestselling first edition, this accessible text includes a new chapter on the relational model and functional dependencies. It also includes expanded chapters on Enhanced Entity Relationship (EER) diagrams and reverse mapping. It uses cutting-edge case studies and examples to help readers master database development basics and defines ER and EER diagramming in terms of requirements (end user requests) and specifications (designer feedback to those requests).

  • Describes a step-by-step approach for producing an ER diagram and developing a relational database from it
  • Contains exercises, examples, case studies, bibliographies, and summaries in each chapter
  • Details the rules for mapping ER diagrams to relational databases
  • Explains how to reverse engineer a relational database back to an entity-relationship model
  • Includes grammar for the ER diagrams that can be presented back to the user

The updated exercises and chapter summaries provide the real-world understanding needed to develop ER and EER diagrams, map them to relational databases, and test the resulting relational database. Complete with a wealth of additional exercises and examples throughout, this edition should be a basic component of any database course. Its comprehensive nature and easy-to-navigate structure makes it a resource that students and professionals will turn to throughout their careers.

Table of Contents

Data, Databases, and the Software Engineering Process
Data
Building a Database
What is the Software Engineering Process?
Entity Relationship Diagrams and the Software Engineering Life Cycle
          Phase 1: Get the Requirements for the Database
          Phase 2: Specify the Database
          Phase 3: Design the Database

Data and Data Models
Files, Records, and Data Items
Moving from 3 × 5 Cards to Computers
Database Models
     The Hierarchical Model
The Network Model
The Relational Model

The Relational Model and Functional Dependencies
Fundamental Relational Database
Relational Database and Sets
Functional Dependency
Non-1NF to 1NF
The Second Normal Form
     Anomalies
     Non-2NF to 2NF
The Third Normal Form
The Equijoin Operation
Some Functional Dependency Rules
The Boyce Codd Normal Form

The Basic ER Diagram: A Data Modeling Schema
What Is a Data Modeling Schema?
     So, What Is an Entity Relationship Diagram?
Defining a Database— Some Definitions: Entity, Relationship, Attribute
     A Beginning Methodology
     ER Design Methodology
A First "Entity-Only" ER Diagram: An Entity with Attributes
More about Attributes
     The Simple or Atomic Attribute
     The Composite Attribute
     The Multivalued Attribute
     The Derived Attribute
     Keys
English Description of the Entity
     The Method
     ER Design Methodology
     Examples
Mapping the Entity Diagram to a Relational Database
Case Study

Beyond the First Entity Diagram
Examining an Entity: Changing an Attribute to Be an Entity
Defining a Relationship for Our New Entity
     ER Design Methodology
A Preliminary Grammar for the ER Diagrams
     The Relationship
Defining a Second Entity
Does a Relationship Exist?
Attribute or Relationship?
     ER Design Methodology
Case Study

Extending Relationships/Structural Constraints
The Cardinality Ratio of a Relationship
     One to One (1:1)
     Many to One (M:1)
     One to Many (1:M)
     Many to Many (M:N)
Participation: Full/Partial
English Descriptions
Tighter English
     Pattern 1—x:y::k:1
     Pattern 2—x:y::k:1
     Pattern 3—x:y::k:M
     Pattern 4—x:y::k:M
     Summary of the Patterns and Relationships
     ER Design Methodology
Some Examples of Other Relationships
     An Example of the One-to-Many Relationship 
     An Example of the Many-to-One Relationship 
     An Example of the Many-to-Many Relationship
One Final Example
     ER Design Methodology
     Pattern 1—M:1, from the M Side, Full Participation
     Pattern 3—1:M, from the 1 Side, Full Participation
Mapping Relationships to a Relational Database
     Mapping Binary M:N Relationships
     Mapping Binary 1:1 Relationships
     Mapping Binary 1:N Relationships
Case Study

The Weak Entity
Strong and Weak Entities
Weak Entities and Structural Constraints
Weak Entities and the Identifying Owner
     Another Example of a Weak Entity and the Identifying Owner
Weak Entities Connected to Other Weak Entities
Revisiting the Methodology
Weak Entity Grammar
     The Keys
Mapping Weak Entities to a Relational Database
Case Study

Further Extensions for ER Diagrams with Binary Relationships
Attributes of Relationships
     The Attributes
Relationships Developing into Entities: The M:N Relationship Revisited
     The Entity
More Entities and Relationships
     More than Two Entities
More Evolution of the Database
Attributes that Evolve into Entities
Recursive Relationships
     Recursive Relationships and Structural Constraints
Multiple Relationships
The Derived or Redundant Relationship
Optional: An Alternative ER Notation for Specifying Structural Constraints on Relationships
Review of the Methodology
     ER Design Methodology
     The Entity
          The Attributes
          The Keys
Mapping Rules for Recursive Relationships
Case Study

Ternary and Higher-Order ER Diagrams
Introduction
Binary or Ternary Relationship?
Structural Constraints for Ternary Relationships
     Many to Many to Many (M:M:M)
An Example of an n-ary Relationship
n-ary Relationships Do Not Preclude Binary Relationships
Methodology and Grammar for the n-ary Relationship
     A More Exact Grammar
     Grammar in a Partial Participation, Ternary Relationship with an M:1:M Relationship
Ternary Relationships from Relationship-Relationship Situations
n-ary Relationships that May Be Resolved into Binary Relationships
Mapping n-ary Relationships to a Relational Database
Review of the Methodology
     ER Design Methodology

The Enhanced Entity Relationship (EER) Model
Introduction
What Is a Generalization or Specialization?
Variants
Examples of Generalizations or Specializations
Methodology and Grammar for Generalization/Specialization Relationships
Mapping Rules for Generalizations and Specializations
     Mapping Rule 15
     Mapping Rule 16
     Mapping Rule 17
     Mapping Rule 18
     Subclasses of Subclasses
     Mapping Rule 19
Categories or Union Types
     Participation Ratios in Categories or Union Types
     Mapping Categories or Union Types When Superclasses Have the Same Primary Keys
     Mapping Categories or Union Types When Superclasse
Final ER Design Methodology
     ER Design Methodology
Case Study

Relational Mapping and Reverse Engineering ER/EER Diagrams
Introduction
Steps Used to Map ER/EER Diagrams to Relational Databases
Reverse Engineering
     Reverse Engineering Rule 1. Develop Strong Entities
     Reverse Engineering Rule 2. Look for 1:1 and 1:N (1:x) Relationships
     Reverse Engineering Rule 2a. Check for Attributes of the 1:x Relationship
     Reverse Engineering Rule 3. Look for Weak Entities and Multivalued Attributes
     Reverse Engineering Rule 3a. Checking for Weak Entities
     Reverse Engineering Rule 3b. Checking for Multivalued Attributes
     Reverse Engineering Rule 4. Check for M:N and n-ary Relationships
     Reverse Engineering Rule 4a. Check for the Binary Case
     Reverse Engineering Rule 4b. Check for the n-ary Case
     Reverse Engineering Rule 5. Check for Generalization/Specialization Relationships Have Different Primary Keys
     Reverse Engineering Rule 5a. Check for Generalization/Specialization Relationships with Disjoint or Overlap Relationships with Total or Partial Participation Constraints
     Reverse Engineering Rule 5b. Check for Disjoint Generalization/ Specialization Relationships with Single-Predicate-Defined Attributes
     Reverse Engineering Rule 5c. Check for Overlap Generalization/Specialization Relationship with More than One Flag
     Reverse Engineering Rule 6. Check for Shared Subclasses
     Reverse Engineering Rule 7. Check for Categories or Union Types

A Brief Overview of the Barker/Oracle-Like Model
Introduction
A First "Entity-Only" ER Diagram: An Entity with Attributes
Attributes in the Barker/Oracle-Like Model
     Optional versus Mandatory Attributes
Relationships in the Barker/Oracle-Like Model
Structural Constraints in the Barker/Oracle-Like Model
Dealing with the Concept of the Weak Entity in the Barker/Oracle-Like Model
Dealing with the Concept of Multivalued Attributes in the Barker/Oracle-Like Model
Treatment of Foreign Keys
Recursive Relationships in the Barker/Oracle-Like Model
Mapping M:N Relationships

Glossary
Index

Each chapter includes an introduction, chapter summary, exercises, and a bibliography

Author Bio(s)

Dr. Sikha Saha Bagui is an associate professor and interim associate chair in the Department of Computer Science at the University of West Florida, Pensacola, Florida. She teaches a variety of computer science and database courses, and her research areas of concentration are database design, web databases, data mining and statistical computing. Dr. Bagui has published many journal articles and co-authored several books with Dr. Earp.

Dr. Richard Walsh Earp, Professor Emeritus, is a former chair of and former associate professor in the Department of Computer Science and former dean of the College of Science and Technology at the University of West Florida in Pensacola, Florida. Dr. Earp was also an instructor with Learning Tree International and worked for Computer Sciences Corporation at the Naval Air Station in Pensacola as a database consultant after his retirement from academia. He has co-authored several books with Dr. Bagui.

 
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